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Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria
ISSN: 2576-1463

Innovative Energy & Research
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Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Adeoye OS* and Adebayo AA
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Adeoye OS, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria, Tel: +234 701 952 3780, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Feb 19, 2018 / Accepted Date: Mar 02, 2018 / Published Date: Mar 07, 2018

Abstract

Ekiti State is an agrarian state located in south western part of Nigeria. The injected power to the Ado-Ekiti and the entire state are 25MW and 37.6MW respectively. The estimated power demand for Ado Ekiti and Ekiti state were 29.01MW and 224.116MW respectively. The distributed power to the consumers is characterized with shortcomings which include: in-adequate supply, poor voltage regulation, improper usage, illiteracy and wastage. The power generation in Nigeria is presently inadequate which to match the estimated power demand of 15,000MW with a population of over 170 million citizens. This paper evaluates the energy utilization in Ado Ekiti metropolis, the wastage and its economic implication as well as effective means of its management. The use of direct interviews, administration of questionnaires, measurements of current and voltage with clamp multimeter, and simple mathematical approach were used for the purpose of evaluation. Recommendations were made with the aim of reducing energy waste from mean value of 10.84% to 2% in order to reduce the cost implication such that the huge financial waste can be injected to other parts of the economy as well as the management of energy in Ekiti state.

Keywords: Energy; Waste; Consumers; Power supply; Demand; Management

Introduction

The insufficient power generation in Nigeria which could not match the power demand of the consumers in the country has culminated into incessant power failure with underdevelopment [1]. The inadequacy in power supply has not been properly utilized and managed there by resulting into wastage of energy. With over 170 million people and a high rate of population growth, Nigeria needs to create 40 to 50 million additional jobs between 2010 and 2030 [2]. The power generation reduced to 1,580.6MW on March 9th, 2016 and suddenly increased to 4,387MW after few days. When an expectation of a peak value of 5,000MW was at sight, the generation level reduced to 2,800MW due to gas pipeline vandalism based on information from the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission [3]. On the 10th August, 2017, 6807MW was recorded as the current available generation capability with the wheeling capacity of 6700MW by Transmission Company of Nigeria currently constrained by Distribution Companies inability to take load [4]. Nigeria has increased its power generation capacity above 7000MW and the government is determined to realize its target of 10,000MW generation capacity [5]. The injected power to the Ado- Ekiti and the entire state are 25MW and 37.6 MW respectively. The estimated power demand for Ado Ekiti and entire Ekiti state were 29.01MW and 224.116MW respectively [6]. Energy is the ability to do work. It can neither be created nor destroy. Energy can be conserved [7] and is the capacity of a physical system to perform work [8]. Energy is critical for human existence and when used efficiently and wisely, can provide an important means of reaching sustainable development goals. Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently. Management functions include: Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, or directing, and controlling, an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal [9]. When it comes to energy saving, energy management is the process of monitoring, controlling and conserving energy in a building or organization [10]. The following steps are crucial to proper energy management: metering your energy consumption and collection of data; finding opportunities to save energy and estimating how much energy each opportunity could save; taking action to target the opportunities to save energy; tracking your progress by analyzing your meter data to see how well your energy saving efforts have worked [10]. The pillars of industrial energy management are: monitor the facility, monitor production, capture energy consumption, model, control, respond, and score card [11]. Methods of measuring energy management success are: consolidate energy data using gateways; take a deeper look into power systems; and use historical data as a baseline [12]. The global share of electricity use in overall energy enduse demand rose from 9.4% to about 14% between 1976 and 1996. In countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), it rose from 14.3% to 18.3% over the same period. Global and regional statistics indicate the average per capita consumption of electricity is now 7500 kWh/year in OECD countries as compared with 482 kWh/year in Asia (excluding China which is 822 kWh/year), 490 kWh /year in Africa and 1402 kWh/yr in Latin America [13]. An industrial customer begins to buy electricity from third party suppliers; many are discovering that deregulation does not necessarily result in reduced costs. For some, poorly negotiated contracts, defaulting suppliers, and failure to understand the actual contract terms have actually resulted in higher costs and subsequent misunderstanding [14]. Improving energy efficiency and reducing energy demand are widely considered as the most promising, fastest and cheapest and safest means to mitigate climate change [15]. Government will play a decisive role in boosting energy efficiency. By focusing energy policies, developing nations could dramatically reduce the growth energy demands over the next twelve years without impairing economic growth [16]. Demand Side Management (DSM) includes energy efficiency and demand efficiency and demand response, works from the other side of the equation instead of adding more generation to the system; it pays energy users to reduce consumption [17]. Energy demand management also known as demand side management is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as financial incentives and behavioral change through education [18]. Demand Side Management in the United Kingdom operates at three levels; Management commitment, investment in Electrical Energy measures, documentation of efficiency improvements [19].

Methodology

This paper evaluates the energy utilization of appliances by consumers and equipment in Ajilosun and Odo-Ado areas of Ado Ekiti metropolis in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A clamp multimeter was used to measure the current and voltage consumed by each appliance. The administration of 120 questionnaires was used and only 105 were returned representing 87.5%. On getting to the meter board of each house, the clamp multimeter was set to the maximum current range of 1000 amperes a.c, the measurement was taken for red phase, yellow phase and blue phase respectively. Starting from the top with the electrical power consumption and running time of electrical equipment and appliances in the domestic residential buildings in Ajilosun and Odo-Ado areas of Ekiti State. Energy consumed are seen to be Energy Utilization while energy consumed by the electrical equipment but are not used such as the electrical bulbs that are on when not needed and other appliances are switched on but not used are regarded as Waste Energy. Both energies are calculated by using the number of available equipment, period of utilization and rating of the electrical equipment. This is done by simple mathematical approach by multiplying the three data together to get the energy utilized by each of the equipment. This research was carried out for five days on each street in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. The following equations are used to determine the energy utilized and energy waste as well as total energy consumed of buildings in these areas. The mathematical equations are:

EU= R × N × T           (1)

Where EU- energy utilized, R- rating of equipment, T- period of equipment usage.

Equation          (2)

Equation          (3)

Where UEU- mean of utilized energy, ET- total energy used, D- total number of days.

Equation          (4)

Where UEU- mean of utilized energy, ET- total energy used, D- total number of days.

Equation          (5)

%EU- percentage utilized energy, UEU- mean of used energy, UEC- mean of total energy consumption.

Equation          (6)

%EW- percentage waste energy, UEW- mean of waste energy, UEW- mean of total energy consumption.

Results

The equation (1) and (2) were used to determine the energy utilization (Eu) and mean of total energy consumption (UEC) respectively. The mean of utilized energy was calculated by equation (3), the mean of waste energy was calculated by equation (4), the percentages of utilized energy and that of waste energy were calculated by equations (5) and (6) respectively. The results were functions of ratings of appliances, the period of utilization based on the availability of power supply in the areas under research study. The Tables 1-6 show the evaluation process and results of the energy utilized and energy waste of different areas. From the summary table, the day one for Odo-Ado with energy utilization of 427,381.2Wh, energy waste of 88,740Wh, and total energy of 516,12Wh is the maximum. The minimum occurs on the fifth day with energy consumption of 174,118.2Wh, energy waste of 15,660Wh and total energy of 189,778.2Wh. From the summary table, the day one for Ajilosun with energy utillization of 434,064Wh, energy waste of 36,210Wh, and total energy of 470,274Wh which is the maximum of the five days analysis. The minimum occurs on the fifth day with energy utilization of 290,256Wh, energy waste of 35,985Wh and total energy of 326,241Wh.

S/N Electrical Equipment Equipment ratings (W) Equipment quantity Period of usage (Hour) Energy utilized EU(Wh)
1 Electric stove 1200 13 3 46,800
3 Electric iron 1000 28 3 84,000
3 Electric Cooker 1300 30 3 117,000
4 Freezer 170 15 3 7,650
5 Television 80 32 3 7,680
6 Radio 60 37 3 6,660
7 Air Condition 1150 7 3 24,150
8 Fan 50 35 3 5,250
9 Computer desktop 300 15 3 13,500
10 Laptop 100 36 3 10,800
11 Chargeable lamp 3.7 42 3 466.2
12 Water heater 900 10 3 27,000
13 blending machine 700 15 3 31,500
14 Energy saving bulb 85 35 3 8,925
15 Incandescent bulb 100 120 3 36,000
Total 427,381.20

Table 1: Daily Electrical Energy Utilization and Running Time Chart of Electrical Equipment and Appliances in Residential at Odo-Ado, Ado-Ekiti.

S/N Electrical Equipment Equipment ratings T, (W) Equipment quantity, N Period of usage, T, (Hour) Energy utilized EU(Wh)
1 Incandescent bulb 100 65 3 19,500
2 Energysaving bulb 85 80 3 20,400
3 Laptop 180 15 3 8,100
4 Television 110 24 3 7,920
5 Refrigerator 600 6 3 10,800
6 Electric Iron 1000 12 3 36,000
Total 88,740

Table 2: Wasted Energy at Odo-Ado Street, Ado-Ekiti.

Number of Days EnergyUtilized/ day Eu(Wh) Waste Energy Ew(Wh) Total Energy ET (Wh)
One 427,381.20 88,740 516,121
Two 337,418.50 54,576 391,994.50
Three 276,903 37,115.40 305, 018.4
Four 272,314.80 13,536.60 285,851.40
Five 174,118.20 15,660 189,778.20

Table 3: Summary Table of Energy Waste, Energy Utilization and Total Energy for Odo-Ado.

S/N Electrical Equipment Equipment (W) Equipment quanity Period of usage (Hour) Energy utilized (Wh)
1 Electric stove 900 10 3 27,000
2 Electric Iron 1000 8 3 24,000
3 Electric Cooker 1300 15 3 58,500
4 Refrigerator 600 16 3 28,800
5 Microwave 1000 9 3 27,000
6 Pumping machine 2,100 15 3 94,500
7 Radio 80 21 3 5,040
8 Television 110 20 3 6,600
9 Air conditional 1,150 9 3 31,050
10 Fan 50 24 3 3,600
11 Computer Desktop 300 22 3 19,800
12 Laptop 180 30 3 16,200
13 Water heater 1200 8 3 28,800
14 Chargeable lamp 44 32 3 4,224
15 Energy saving bulb 85 90 3 22,950
16 Incandescent bulb 100 120 3 36,000
Total 434,064

Table 4: Daily Electrical Energy Utilization and Running Time Chart of Electrical Equipment and Appliances in Residential at Ajilosun, Ado-Ekiti.

S/N Electrical Equipment Equipment rating  T,(W) Equipment quantity, N Period of usage, T, (Hour) Power consumed
1 Incandescent bulb 100 25 3 7500
2 Energy saving bulb 85 22 3 5,610
3 Laptop 180 7 3 3,780
4 Television 110 4 3 1,320
5 Refrigerator 600 5 3 9000
6 Electric Iron 1000 3 3 9000
TOTAL 36,210

Table 5: Energy Waste at Coca-Cola Area, Ajilosun.

Number of Days Energy Utilization, Eu (Wh) Energy Waste, Ew, (Wh) Total Energy, ET (Wh)
One 434, 064 36,210 470,274
Two 363,885 38,100 401,985
Three 388,302 32,910 421,212
Four 335,232 41,859 377,091
Five 290,256 35,985 326,241

Table 6: Summary Table Of Energy Waste, Power Consumption and Total Energy For Ajilosun Street, Ado-Ekiti.

Discussion

This paper evaluates the demand side management of Odo-Ado and Ajilosun streets of Ado –Ekiti metropolis with densely population and they are the commercial and residential areas of the city. From the Tables 1-6, it is obvious that power supply to those areas do not exceed three hours in a day. Appliances and equipment used by domestic consumers were considered and their quantities from one residential building to another were carefully observed for the sake ofanalysis. Table 1 shows the daily electrical energy utilization and its running time for appliances andequipment at Odo- Ado area of Ado-Ekiti. The energy utilization for day one was estimated to be 427,381.2Wh. Table 2 shows the waste energy estimated to be 88,740Wh while Table 3 shows thetotal energy estimated to be 337,418.5Wh, the energy waste was 54,576 while the total energy wasput at 391,995 Wh. The detail of the remaining three days can be viewed from Table 3. Similarly, Table 4 shows the daily electrical energy utilization and its running time for appliances and equipment at Ajilosun area of Ado-Ekiti. The energy utilization for day one was estimated to be 434,064Wh. Table 5 Shows the waste wasted energy estimated to be 36,210Wh, Table 6 shows the total energy estimated to be 470,274Wh. For day two, the energy utilization was 363,885, the energy waste was 38,100 Wh while the total energy was estimated to be 401,985 Wh. The detail of the remaining three days was presented in Table 6. It is imperative to note that the mean of total energy utilization for Odo-Ado area was calculated to be 337,752.7Wh while that of Ajilosun was 399,360.6Wh with a difference of 61,607.9 Wh. The mean of utilized energy forOdo-Ado and Ajilosun areas were 295,827.14Wh and 362,347.8Wh respectively with a difference of 66,519.86 Wh. The mean of waste energy for the areas were 41,925.56 Wh and 37,012.8Wh with a difference of 4,912.76Wh. The percentage of utilized energy for Odo-Ado and Ajilosun areas were estimated as 87.59% and 90.73% respectively. The percentage of waste energy of Odo-Ado and Ajilosun were calculated as 12.41% and 9.27%respectively. Figure 1 shows the running time for appliances and their level of energy utilization. This plot shows that the minimum energy utilization was at 3,600 Wh, the mean value was 26,711.3Wh and the maximum was 94,500Wh for fan, microwave or electric stove and pumping machine repectively.

innovative-energy-policies-Plot-energy-utilized

Figure 1: Plot of energy utilized by electrical appliances in Odo- Ado, Ado-Ekiti.

Conclusion

The percentage of used energy for Odo-Ado and Ajilosun areas were estimated as 87.59% and 90.73% respectively. The percentage of waste energy of Odo-Ado and Ajilosun were calculated as 12.41% and 9.27% respectively which is huge and can be managed and re-invested into the energy sector and other parts of the economy. The energy in these areas could be properly managed through public enlightenment of domestic consumers on the mode of utilizing their appliances and equipment in order to increase the percentage of energy usage and reduce the percentage of waste energy and equivalent financial loss that could be re-invested on the energy sector.

Recommendation

The demand side management is extremely vital to the growth of any country, therefore, the following recommendations were made;

1. The energy waste of the areas under consideration should not be more than 1-2% as against the mean value of this research work estimated to be 10.84%.

2. There should be proper enlightenment of Nigerians in the areas of energy usage in such a way that the consumers should be deenergized their equipment and appliances when they are not in use which will in turn reduce energy wastage.

3. The economic implication of energy waste is huge and a reduction in it will revolve such funds in other sectors of the economy and more importantly, energy sector.

References

Citation: Adeoye OS, Adebayo AA (2018) Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Innov Ener Res 7: 190. DOI: 10.4172/2576-1463.1000190

Copyright: © 2018 Adeoye OS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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