Vimla Kumari*, Kamini Kaushal, Ashwini K Sharma, Rajesh Mishra, Meera Bhatt and Pradeep Soni
Department of Dravyaguna, MMM Govt. Ayurved College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Received Date: August 01, 2017; Accepted Date: August 22, 2017; Published Date: August 28, 2017
Citation: Kumari V, Kaushal K, Sharma AK, Mishra R, Bhatt M, et al. (2017) Evaluation of Shothahara Mahakashaya of Charak Samhita: A Literary Review. J Tradit Med Clin Natur 6:236.
Copyright: © 2017 Kumari V, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Shothahara mahakashaya denotes group of ten medicines, which act on Shotha roga. Shotha roga can be correlated with the term edema/Swelling of modern medicine. Shothahara Mahakashaya is the 38th gana of the 50 mahakashaya gana described in fourth chapter of Sutra sthan of Charak Samhita and includes patala, agnimantha, bilva, syonaka, kashmariya, kantakari, brihati, shalaparni, prishaniparni, goksura ten ingredients. These 10 plants are work together and give enhanced effect. They are also effective individually. These plants having Katu, Tikta, Kasaya Rasa, Ushna Virya, Katu Vipaka, Ruksha, Laghu Guna and Tridoshaghan (Mainly Vataghana) properties.
Shothahara mahakashaya; Swelling; Dashamula; Ayurveda; Anti-edematous; Diuretic
Shothahara mahakashaya, group of ten dravyas, which act on Shotha roga. Shotha roga can be correlated with the term Swelling/ edema of modern medicine [1-3]. In Ayurveda, various varities of Shothaare described. These include mainly three types as described by charakasamhita-Vataj shotha, Pittaj shotha, kaphaj shotha. Two types (Nija & Agantuja or Ekangaja, Sarvaja four Vattik, Pattik, Shlaismika & Agantuja, seven types Vattika, pattika, Shlaismika, Shanipataja, vata-pattika, vattashlaismika, pittashlaismika eight types Vattika, pattika, Shlaismika, Shanipataja, vatapattika, vattashlaismika, pittashlaismika, agantuja [4-6].
Bahya sira prapya yada kaphasrikapitani samdushayati.
Tairbadhamarga sa tada visharpatyutsedhalinga shawathum karoti.
Mentioned causative factors of shotha roga, kapha, asrik (Blood) and pitta enter the external vessels (Bahaya sira) and afflict vata dosha. As a result, the channel of circulation gets obstructed which spreads to the nearby areas, leading to shotha. Shotha is characterized by swelling (Tables 1-3).
|S. No.||Name||Botanical Name||Family||English Name||Useful Part|
|1.||Patala||Stereospermum suaveolens DC||Bignoniaceae||Rose flower fragrant||Root bark, flower, seed, leaf, kshara|
|2||Agnimantha||Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.||Verbenaceae||Glory Bower||Root bark, bark, panchang, leaves|
|3||Shyonaka||Oroxylum indicum Vent.||Bignoniaceae||Midnight horror, oroxylum, Indian trumpet flower||Root bark|
|4||Bilva||Aegle marmelos Corr.||Rutaceae||Bael tree||Fruit, leaves, root|
|5||Gambhari||Gmelina arborea Linn.||Verbenaceae||Kumil, White teak, Gamar||Root, fruit, flower, leaves|
|6||Kantkari||Solanum surattense Burm./S. xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl||Solanaceae||Yellow berried night shade||Whole plant, root,|
|7||Brihati||Solanum indicum Linn.||Solanaceae||Poison berry, Indian night shade,, African Eggplant, Bush Tomato||Root, fruit|
|8||Shalaparni||Desmodium gangeticum DC||Leguminosae||Sal leaved desmodium||Whole plant, root|
|9||Prisnaparni||Ureria picta Desv.||Leguminosae||Indian uraria||Root|
|10||Gokshura||Tribulus terrestris Linn.||Zygophylaceae||Land caltrops/Puncture vine/cow hage||Root, fruit|
|S. No.||Sanskrit Name||Guna||Rasa||Virya||Vipaka||Dosha Karma||Main karma|
|1||Patla||Laghu, Rooksha||Tikta, kashaya||Ushna||Katu||Tridoshahara||Shothahara, mutral,|
|2||Agnimanth||Laghu, Rooksha||Tikta, Katu, Kashay, Madhur||Ushna||Katu||Kaphavatahar||Shothahara, vednasthapak|
|3||Syonaka||Laghu, Rooksha||Madhur, tikta, kashaya||Ushna||Katu||Kaphavatahar||Upashosan, mutral, shothahara|
|4||Bilv||Laghu,Rooksha||Kasaya,Tikta||Ushna||Katu||Kaphavatahar||Shothahara, Dipan, pachan|
|5||Gambhari||Guru||Tikta, Kasaya, Madhur||Ushna||Katu||Tridoshahara||Shothahara, mutral|
|6||Kantkari||Laghu,Rooksha,Tikshna||Katu, Tikta||Ushna||Katu||Kaphavatahar||Kashahar, mutral,|
|7||Brihati||Laghu,Rooksha,Tikshna||Katu,Tikta||Ushna||Katu||Kaphavatahar||Kashahar, mutral, hridroghara|
|8||Shalaparni||guru, snigdha||madhur, Tikta||Ushna||madhur||Tridoshahara||Angamardprashaman, Shothahara, deepan|
|9||Prisnaparni||laghu, snigdha||madhur, Tikta||Ushna||madhur||Tridoshahara||Angamardprashaman,deepan|
|These 10 dravyas are considered as Dashamoola. Shothahara mahakashaya having Katu, Tikta, Kasaya Rasa, Ushna Virya, Katu Vipaka, Ruksha, Laghu Guna and Tridoshaghan (Mainly Vataghana) properties and with Ushna Virya and Katu Vipaka change sentence|
Table 2: Properties and action.
|S. No.||Dravya Name||Chemical constitutes||Extract/Active chemicals||Mode of Action|
|1||Patla||Flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin, stereolensin, Iridoid glycoside, beta-sitosterol etc||Ethanol extract of bark||Its inhibition on histamine and 5-HT release at the site of inflammation or by blocking their action responsible for prostaglandin synthesis or by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis through COX-2 inhibition mechanism|
|2||Agnimanth||Beta-sitosterol, luteolin, alphelandrine, premnine, betulin, ganiarine etc.||Chlorofom extract of aerial part, aqueous extract of root bark||Inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins & other inflammatory mediators|
|3||Syonaka||Baicalin, tetulin, oroxindin, aloe-emodin,chrysin, oroxylium A, p-coumaric acid, scutellarein-7-rutinosides, prunetin, beta-sitosterol etc.||Ethanol Extract of Stem Bark||Suppressed the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including NF-κB, TNFα, IL-1β, and IFNγ and the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes|
|4||Bilv||Root-Xanthotoxin, umbelliferone, marmesin, marmin, skimmin, etc.||Root-three active compounds aegeline, skimmianine, and marmin||Potently inhibited the histamine release from rat mast cells|
|5||Gambhari||Beta-sitosterol, ceryl alcohol, gmelinol, butyric acid, tartaric acid, apigenin, arborone, ardorel, isoarborel, cutytyl ferulate, epieudesmin, gmelanore, etc.||Aqueous and Methanolc extract of bark||Inhibition of prostaglandin and other autocoids|
|6||Kantkari||Beta-carotene, diosgenin, carpesterol, solasodine, solamargine, beta-solamargine, solasonine, solasodino-L-rhamnosyl-B-D-glucoside, solanocarpine, tomatidienol etc.||Methanolc Extract of Leaf||Inhibitory effect on the release of active pain substance such as histamine, serotonin, polypeptides or prostaglandins|
|7||Brihati||Carotene, solasonine, carpesterol, solanocarpone, diosgenin,beta-sitosterol, lanosterol, solanine, solamargine, solasodine, vit-C etc.||Methanolc extract of fruit||Inhibition of pain substance like histamine, serotonin & inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, inhibit of the cyclooxygenase pathway|
|8||Shalaparni||Flavonoids , N,N-dimethyltryptamine, hypaphorine, hordenine, caudicine, gangetin-3H, gangetinin, desmodin etc.||Ethanolic extract of leaves||Flavonoids-anti-inflammatory effects through its inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway|
|9||Prisnaparni||Flavonoids, steroids, triterpinoids, tannins, carbohydrate, Amino-acids,||Methanolc Extract of aerial part||Histamine,prostaglandins, kinin and pro-inflammatory cytokinins|
|10||Gokshur||Root-campesterol, beta sitosterol,stigmasterol,neotigogenin||Ethanolic extract of fruit||Inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines|
Table 3: Shows chemical constitute pharmacological properties.
Ushma tatha syadwathuh siranamayam ityev ca poorvrupm.
Sgoravam syadanavsthitatvam sotsedhamoosmaatha siratanutavam.
Slomaharshaangavivarnata ca samanyalingam swathoh pradistam.
(Charaka Samhita chikshasthan 12/10-11)
Siranam Ayam-Dilation of the vessels of Locality;
Patlaagnimanthsyonakabilvakashmriyakantkarikabrihatishal-parniprishamanigokshuraiti dashemani swayathuharani bhawanti. (Charaka Samhita Sutrasthan 4)
Dashmool reduces vitiated Tridosha; when there is a high Vata & it can be used as a tonic to strengthen the system, exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-cancer activity, strengthens the body and enhances the production of tissue. Dashmoola is used in Ayurveda texts for the following disorders- use ayurveda terms (Pyrexia (different types of fevers )), (acute and chronic asthma), (chronic cough), (hiccups), (cough), all types of vata disorders, pain disorders, epilepsy, heart diseases, renal disorders, all types of paralysis, ascites and all types of post-delivery complaints, tetanus aphrodisiac, infertility and in panchkarma treatments mainly Basti, ShiroDhara, Swedan Karma [13-19].
All the drugs are and having Alkaloids, Lignan, Flavanoid etc which, Help the reduce the edema. All the 10 drugs are having the quality to treat the shotha roga. Shothahara mahakashya helps re-establish normal physiological function in the affected tissues and organs.
Dosha karma (Effect on humors) specifies mainly vata dosha, normalizes kapha dosha.
Dhatu (Tissue effect)-Rasa, Mamsa, Asthi.
Organs effect-Nerves, Muscles, Bones, Joints.
Main Indication-Vata disorders.
Physician can select the best drug among these with the help of Yukti Pramana.
Shothahara mahakasaya every dravya though an ingredient of Dashmool, an anti-inflammatory formulation from Ayurveda, is not indicated in Ayurveda as a single drug formulation for internal use in treatment of inflammatory disorders.