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Journal of Phytochemistry & Biochemistry is a peer reviewed open access publication that explains the biological chemical process within the organism while exploring the role of plant based chemical extracts in the development, growth and cure of the organism in general and human in particular.The journals thus aim at clinical and experimental pharmacologists, toxicologists, clinical and medical biochemistry researchers, practitioners, professionals and students. The journal encourages original manuscripts for publication in the form of research articles, reviews, commentaries, short communication, letters to the editors and editorials.Journal of Phytochemistry & Biochemistry encompasses a broad spectrum of theoretical, conceptual and application oriented studies in the fields of Phytochemistry & biochemistry including Pharmacognosy; Phytochemical Analysis; Traditional Herbal Medicine; Plant Alkaloids; Flavonoids; Medicinal Plant Extracts; Antioxidant; Photoresist Technology; Biomolecules; Blood Biochemistry; Membrane Biochemistry; Protein Biochemistry; Applied Biochemistry; Biochemical pharmacology; Human Biochemistry; Genome-enabled biochemistry; Structural biology.
The well structured editorial board for the Journal of Phytochemistry & Biochemistry ensures opt and timely review, where all the submitted manuscripts undergo a rigorous peer review process by the internationally reputed scientists in the field of photochemistry and biochemistry. This offers a worldwide forum for the free online knowledge dissemination and sharing under the guidelines of Open Access Creative Commons Attribution License. This permits anyone to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, provided that the original source is appropriately cited.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants. Those studying phytochemistry strive to describe the structures of the large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. Plants synthesize phytochemicals for many reasons, including to protect themselves against insect attacks and plant diseases. Phytochemistry can be considered sub-fields of botany or chemistry. Activities can be led in botanical gardens or in the wild with the aid of ethanobotany. The applications of the discipline can be for pharmacognosy or the discovery of new drugs, or as an aid for plant physiology studies.
Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. It is a laboratory based science that brings together biology and chemistry. Biochemistry focuses on processes happening at a molecular level. Biochemistry covers a range of scientific disciplines, including genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science and medicine.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Clinical biochemistry or chemical pathology is the study of chemical and biochemical mechanisms of the body in relation to disease, mostly through the analysis of body fluids such as blood or urine. Many diseases show significant changes in the chemical composition of body fluids such as the raised blood enzymes due to their release from heart muscles after a heart attack; or a raised blood sugar in diabetes mellitus due to lack of insulin. Biochemical tests are designed to detect these changes qualitatively or quantitatively compared to results from healthy people. Clinical biochemistry use a broad range of analytical techniques for example, molecular diagnostics, measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, the separation of molecules based on physical characteristics and immunoassays.
Bioorganic chemistry is discipline that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry. While biochemistry aims at understanding biological processes using chemistry, bioorganic chemistry attempts to expand organic-chemical researches, structures, synthesis, and kinetics, towards biology. Bioorganic chemistry is that branch of life science that deals with the study of biological processes using chemical methods.
Proteins provide most of the molecular machinery of cells. Many are enzymes or subunits of enzymes. Other proteins play structural or mechanical roles, such as those that form the struts and joints of the cytoskeleton. Each protein is linear polymers built of amino acids. Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, with many functions. Proteomics is an interdisciplinary domain that has benefitted greatly from the genetic information of the Human Genome Project; it also covers emerging scientific research and the exploration of proteomes from the overall level of intracellular protein composition, structure, and its own unique activity patterns. It is an important component of functional genomics.
Nutritional biochemistry is the study of nutrition as a science. Nutritional biochemistry deals with various studies in nutrients, food constituents and their function regarding humans and other mammals, nutritional biochemistry specifically focuses on nutrient chemical components, and how they function biochemically, physiologically, metabolically, as well as their impact on disease. Nutritional Biochemical research is mostly involved upon defining dietary and nutritional needs in sick and healthy individuals and the reduction of side effects of pharmaceutical drugs.
Ecological Biochemistry and Chemistry deals with plants & how they interact with their environment, including adaptation to environmental stress, symbiosis, interactions with other organisms, phytoalexins, phytotoxins, pollination (bio)chemistry, and the use of phytochemicals by other organisms.
Chemistry and Bioactive Products deals with structural elucidation and in planta and in vitro activities of newly identified phytochemicals, including studies that elucidate their role and mode of action in nutritional, pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use. Studies of the biological activity of known compounds will only be considered when they add significant insight to the way in which the biological action of the phytochemicals is a must.
Chemotaxonomy as the method of biological classification based on similarities in the structure of certain compounds among the organisms being classified. As the proteins are more closely controlled by genes and less subjected to natural selection than the anatomical features, they are more reliable indicators of genetic relationships. The compounds studied most are proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, peptides etc. Chemotaxonomy deals with comparative phytochemistry of plants, in particular their role as a taxonomic tool.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes. mRNA gene expression data and proteomic analyses reveal the set of gene products being produced in the cell, data that represents one aspect of cellular function. Conversely, metabolic profiling can give an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of that cell. One of the challenges of systems biology and functional genomics is to integrate proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic information to provide a better understanding of cellular biology. Metabolomics deals with new discoveries in all aspects of plant metabolism, both primary and specialized (secondary). Contributions are encouraged that report the elucidation of metabolic pathways, metabolic regulation, or the biosynthesis and roles of macromolecules. Reports improving our understanding of how phytochemicals act in planta are particularly welcomed, as are studies of transgenic organisms or of metabolic variation.
Agricultural biochemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation. These studies emphasize the relationships between plants, animals and bacteria and their environment.
Pharmacology is a branch of biomedical science, encompassing clinical pharmacology, that is concerned with the effects of drugs/pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics on living systems, as well as their development and chemical properties. The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, toxicology, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems.
Nanobiotechnology refers to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiotechnology include: nanodevices (such as biological machines), nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created.
Nephropharmacology is the intersection between nephrology and clinical Pharmacology.
Herbal medicine or phytotherapy is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet. A herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are sold as tablets, capsules, powders, teas, extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health.
Ayurveda is an ancient system of life and also the oldest surviving medical system in the world. Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type of complementary or alternative medicine. In countries beyond India, Ayurveda therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use. Its influence can be found in many ancient traditional methods of healing including Tibetan, Greek, and Chinese medicines thus making it the ‘mother of healing.’
Environmental pharmacology is a new discipline.Focus is being given to understand gene–environment interaction, drug-environment interaction and toxin-environment interaction. There is a close collaboration between environmental science and medicine in addressing these issues, as healthcare itself can be a cause of environmental damage or remediation. Human health and ecology are intimately related. Demand for more pharmaceutical products may place the public at risk through the destruction of species. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the aquatic ecosystem is a more serious concern today. In addition, the production of some illegal drugs pollutes drinking water supply by releasing carcinogens.This field is intimately linked with Public Health fields.
A pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources. Its defined as the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugsfrom natural sources. It is also defined as the study of crude drugs.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, medicine, and nursing, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment.