alexa Genomic Approaches of Crops Genetic Diversity | OMICS International
ISSN: 2329-8863
Advances in Crop Science and Technology
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Genomic Approaches of Crops Genetic Diversity

Marc El Beyrouthy*, Alain Abi-Rizk and Lara Hanna Wakim
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of the Holy Spirit of Kaslik, Lebanon
Corresponding Author : Marc El Beyrouthy
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences
University of the Holy Spirit of Kaslik, Lebanon
Tel: +961 9 600878
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 09, 2014; Accepted January 11, 2014; Published January 13, 2014
Citation: Beyrouthy MEl, Abi-Rizk A, Wakim LH (2014) Genomic Approaches of Crops Genetic Diversity. Adv Crop Sci Tech 1:e110. doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e110
Copyright: © 2014 Beyrouthy MEl. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Advances in Crop Science and Technology

Way before the advances of crops genomic biotechnologies, pedigree and geographical distribution analyses of plants were used for the evaluation of genetic diversities [1] and crops were profiled using only morphology and phenotypic aspects [2].
For thousands of years, crop genetic diversity (the variation of the genes within a crop species), was the only result of domestication and practices of crop production with relatively few and genetically similar high-yielding cultivars [3]. Nowadays, and since food security and availability are threatened by the incapability of crops to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions and increasing food demand [4], many efforts were made to enhance the genetic diversity of elite breeding pools using mutants, landraces, and ⁄ or wild species closely related to the cultivated crop.
The development of the molecular marker techniques has been useful for genotyping analysis [5], determination of phylogenetic relationships, population structure, map-based cloning, QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) mapping and MAS (Marker Assisted Selection). But these techniques do not seem very suitable for measuring the adaptive genetic diversity of crops [6]. Therefore, diversity analysis should be based on functional genes or whole-genome sequences.
From the early 90’s and till today, only few plants and crops genomes have been sequenced [7] and are presented in genome-based databases that incorporate many levels and types of information such as the QTLs, mutants, physical maps, expression data, markers, and genetic diversity. In fact, the decreasing quality of genome sequences makes the organization of the data very difficult. The more fragmented is the genome; the more difficult is the creation of a useful database with exploitable information.
In the last decade, the application of NGS (Next-Generation Sequencing) technologies started to be widely applied for the resequencing of crop species that have a complete reference genome sequence. It was mainly used for finding SNPs suitable as DNA markers [8], examination of selection patterns either in advanced populations or during domestication [9,10], or finding functional alleles [11]. In fact, the objective for re-sequencing genomes within a species is to understand the molecular basis for “phenotype–genotype” relationships.
However, de novo assembly (not requiring a reference genome) using NGS with short-read lengths seems not very suitable for crops genome sequencing due to the high complexity of most plant genomes as a result of extensive duplication and the presence of repeat sequences [12].
While Genome-wide SNP genotyping is a powerful tool for evolutionary studies and association mapping [13], communitydeveloped SNP panels present limited utility in wider sets of germ plasm. But, genotyping by sequencing will overcome these limitations and afford many more polymorphic markers [14].
Diversity panels of genotypes presented in a particular species with reference genome sequences using NGS technologies will provide a platform for understanding existing genetic diversity, phenotypes with their related genes and exploiting natural genetic diversity to help develop greater genotypes. In order to do this effectively, extensive phenotypic data must be collected for the diversity panels and combined with re-sequencing data [15].
It is important to know that collecting phenotypic data remains the most complicated task for effective use of genomics technologies in advanced plant improvement. Phenotypic traits need an experienced eye and a skilled hand to score them effectively and consistently. Therefore, phenomics (mass collection of phenotypes) has not kept pace as in genomics and nowadays few people are being trained to collect relevant phenotypes [16].
Engineers and plant scientists must create new platforms to rapidly and accurately collect phenotypes on thousands of plants at a time before combining it to genomic approaches.
Improvements are being made, but equal advances in phenomics and genomics are needed in order to meet the world challenges on food security and availability.
References
















Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11982
  • [From(publication date):
    February-2014 - Dec 14, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8179
  • PDF downloads : 3803
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version