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ISSN: 2573-4555
Journal of Traditional Medicine & Clinical Naturopathy
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Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of a Patient with Hepatitis: A Case Study

Muhammad Zeeshan Zafar*

Department of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha

*Corresponding Author:
Muhammad Zeeshan Zafar
Department of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha
Tel: 03466189496
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 26, 2017; Accepted date: September 05, 2017; Published date: September 11, 2017

Citation: Zafar MZ (2017) Patient with a History of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. J Tradit Med Clin Natur 6:240.

Copyright: © 2017 Zafar MZ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Hepatitis B and C is an inflammation of the liver if it is not treated then ultimately leads to liver cirrhosis. Hepatitis spread by several causes like due to having sex with an infected person and from an infected mother to her newborn babies. A 35 years old lady was a patient whose laboratory tests performed by the doctor after checking her symptoms. The doctor observed from tests that she was affected with Hepatitis C and also some symptoms of Hepatitis B. Doctor prescribed him a medication for her treatment after using medication she became feel well. We concluded from this case study that proper doctor check-up will perform after symptoms appeared and well diagnosed by the doctor. Proper medication schedule and regularly check-up also under consideration by patients.

Keywords

Pathophysiology; Pharmacotherapy; Hepatitis B and C

Introduction

The word Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis is most often caused by several viruses. There are different types of hepatitis but most familiar types of Hepatitis are Hepatitis B and C. Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ranges in severity from mild to long lasting illness, which can lead to liver disease or liver cancer [1-4]. On the other hand hepatitis C caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C virus infection sometimes results in an acute illness but most often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver. Both types can be spread by contact with the blood of an infected person, from an infected mother to her newborn babies and having sex with an infected person.

Case Presentation

A lady of age 35 was suffering in a disease of hepatitis B and C. At the start, she felt pain in bones, in muscles, in shoulders and in joint. Her sleep reduced. Gradually these symptoms increased more severely. And then it was difficult for her to walk. She also felt restlessness. She also wanted to eat sand. She also felt pain in stomach. When she consulted to a doctor [5-7], he gave her some blood test. From these test, it has been proved that she was suffering from Hepatitis B and C. Gradually Hepatitis B is finished rather Hepatitis C is under treatment.

Laboratory Diagnosis

At a start, the doctor gave her blood tests and its results are following from which it has been proved that she suffered from Hepatitis B and C.

Pharmacotherapy

In its treatment doctor prescribed him Omeprazoe 40 mg once a day before breakfast, Carvedilol 12.5 mg for to treat her hypertension twice a day, Pregesic (Caffeine+Chlorpromazine+Paracetamol) thrice a day, Lactulose syrup for constipation when required, Tocopherol 400 mg twice a day and Etoricoxib 60 mg once daily given to a patient for her treatment. Patients used these medications regularly and slowly her symptoms were eradicated and she became feeling well.

Serology and immunology

HBs Ag Rapid Screening=Positive

Anti-HCV Ab Rapid Screening=Positive

From these tests, it has been confirmed that patient was suffering from Hepatitis B and C. Then from time to time doctor gave her blood tests to check the condition. Every time there occur variations.

Hemoglobin level ESR Platelets
10.9 g/dl 115 mm/h 118000/cmm
11.8 g/dl 81 mm/h 145000/cmm
11.6 g/dl 65 mm/h 168000/cmm
12.0 g/dl 80 mm/h 132000/cmm

Sometime uric acid level also increases 6.4 mg/dl. But gradually Serology:

HBs Ag ELISA=0.2675 Non-Reactive
Anti-HCV ELISA=2.792 Reactive

So Hepatitis C is under treatment.

Discussion

Hepatitis B and C is mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen and body fluids. Active hepatitis C is found in more than 50% of dually infected patients. Besides, HCV can be successfully eradicated in at least 70% of patients with chronic HCV mono-infection using combination therapy of Peg-IFN and RBV in Asian-Pacific region [8].

In this case report, we can identify that a patient affected with hepatitis by examining her physically, after laboratory test doctor confirmed that a patient was infected with reactive hepatitis B virus and non-reactive hepatitis C virus. Omeprazole advised by doctor to patient for her stomach maintenance and paracetamol advised for fever because hepatitis patients mostly having high body temperature [9-14].

Conclusion

We concluded that hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver which can lead to liver cirrhosis and ultimately death occurs. Therefore we must follow proper check-up procedures and identify the disease by laboratory tests and use proper medications for the specific time. It’s the duty of physicians and pharmacists to inform a patient about hepatitis dangers and preventive measures. [15].

Acknowledgement

I shall be thankful to Mam Alia (Lecturer, University of Sargodha, Pakistan), for providing and give me such a platform for doing work.

References

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