|Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh1,2*, Sarah F Tyson1,3 , Christopher J Nester1 and Glen Cooper4|
|1School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK|
|2Musculoskeletal Research center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran|
|3Stroke and Vascular Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK|
|4School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK|
|Corresponding Author :||Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh
School of Health Sciences
University of Salford, Salford UK
Tel: +98 311 792 2021
Fax: +98 311 6687270
Email: [email protected]
|Received: June 13, 2015 Accepted: August 03, 2015 Published: August 07, 2015|
|Citation: Sadeghi-Demneh E, Tyson SF, Nester CJ, Cooper G (2015) The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TENS) Applied to the Foot and Ankle on Strength, Proprioception and Balance: A Preliminary Study. Clin Res Foot Ankle 3:170. doi:10.4172/2329-910X.1000170|
|Copyright: © 2015 Sadeghi-Demneh E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) promotes upper motor neuron excitability which has the potential to improve function. As a precursor to clinical trials, we investigated the potential efficacy of TENS on strength, proprioception and balance in healthy older adults.
Method: Design: A paired-sample randomized crossover trial. No stimulation was the control.
Intervention: A one-off session of TENS (Modulated frequency: 70-130Hz, 5 second cycle) via a conductive sock. Participants: 25 healthy older volunteers with no pre-existing balance or mobility limitations or contra-indications to TENS. Outcomes: Dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength and proprioception using an isokinetic dynamometer and balance (postural sway and forward reach test). Analysis: Paired t-tests Results: None of the parameters showed any significant changes with TENS (p>0.05).
Conclusions: The stimulation of cutaneous sensory nerve endings of the foot with the application of TENS showed no immediate effect on the ankle proprioception, lower leg muscle strength, and postural stability. The concern that TENS would have a distracting impact on sensation and balance was not supported according to these results.