Thermal Analysis Methods in Pharmaceutical Quality Control
Received: 19-Feb-2015 / Accepted Date: 20-Feb-2015 / Published Date: 25-Feb-2015 DOI: 10.4172/2329-9053.1000e121
Thermal analysis is defined as a group of physical-chemical methods which the properties of studied material are measured as a function of temperature or time while the sample is placed under a controlled temperature program. The program may include heating or cooling (dynamic), or fixed temperature (isothermal), or a combination of these methods [1,2]. Different multi-component techniques including thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo-microscopy are available instrumentally. Nowadays, these methods has gained significant attention in both quality control and functional research on Industries such as polymers, pharmaceuticals, metals and alloys [3,4]. Thermogravimetry (TG) or Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is a fundamental laboratory instruments applied for investigation of the material properties in various fields such as pharmaceutical, environmental, food and petrochemical applications . TGA is a technique in which the amount of weight change of a substance, is monitored either as a function of controlled temperature, or isothermally as a function of time, in an atmosphere of N2, He, air, other gas, or in vacuum . The differential thermal analysis (DTA) is common thermal analysis method in which an analyte and an inert reference are heating at a certain heating rate while any temperature change is recorded. DTA is a popular tool used to characterize pharmaceuticals, foods, biologicals, organic and inorganic chemicals and briefly applied to measure endothermic and exothermic transitions as a function of temperature [7,8]. Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a popular thermoanalytical technique ranging from the pharmaceutical science to applied research. DSC monitors the difference in the amount of required heat to increase the temperature of a sample and reference (which should have an acceptable heat capacity in the range of scanned temperatures) as a function of temperature [9,10].
Thermo microscope or hot stage microscope (HSM) is a microscope coupled with a hot stage accessory with excellent heating and cooling systems ranging from -200°C to 500°C. For study the visual changes a color camera is connected to the microscope. This method records the surface temperature and thermal conductivity of an interface [11-13].
In pharmaceutical control all mentioned thermal techniques are of significant importance. The drug substance purity, polymorphism, stability can be easily evaluated using thermal analysis [10,14-17]. In the case of pharmaceutical excipients, the purity, glass transition temperature of polymeric materials and drug-excipient compatibility is simply monitored using these methods [18,19]. Recently kinetic analysis has been performed based on different thermal techniques such as DSC and TGA, and various models have been proposed in order to analyze the Arrhenius kinetic parameters [20-22].
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Citation: Monajjemzadeh F, Ghaderi F (2015) Thermal Analysis Methods in Pharmaceutical Quality Control. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: e121. Doi: 10.4172/2329-9053.1000e121
Copyright: ©2015 Monajjemzadeh F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.