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ISSN: 2332-0877
Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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Use of LAB to Control Urogenital Infections

Mittu B*, Kaur B and Balgir PP
Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India
Corresponding Author : Mittu B
Department of Biotechnology
Punjabi University, Patiala, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: November 03, 2015 Accepted: January 08, 2016 Published: January 08, 2016
Citation: Mittu B, Kaur B, Balgir PP (2016) Use of LAB to Control Urogenital Infections. J Infect Dis Ther 4:262. doi:10.4172/2332-0877.1000262
Copyright: © 2016 Mittu, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Introduction
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract, it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract, it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). The indigenous microbiota plays an important role in protecting the host from colonization of invading pathogens. Lactobacillus is the predominant genus in the vaginal [1] and endocervical microbial communities [2] and is present at concentrations of 107 to 108 CFU/ml of vaginal fluid in healthy postmenopausal/ premenopausal women [3].
There is an emerging role of lactobacilli in the control and maintenance of the vaginal bacterial microflora. L. jensenii and L. gasseri are two of the most common species present, as determined by culture-independent techniques [4]. Relationship between LAB and vaginal pathogen have been studied which indicates that antibiotic treatment should not kill healthy LAB to preserve healthy vagina [4]. Pascual et al. (2010) found that L. fermentum L23 isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy woman can prevent and cure E. coli infection in a murine vaginal tract model [5].
Lactobacillus sp. ferment glycogen secreted by vaginal epithelial cells into lactic acid, and colonization by these microorganisms correlates to the low pH in the vagina [6,7]. The acidic environment protects the vagina against over-growth of pathogens [8,9]. L. salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL 1328 was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., G. vaginalis, S. aureus and S. agalactiae by the effect of pH, and N. gonorrhoeae and E. faecalis by a bacteriocin-like substance that was reported previously [10-12]. L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. plantarum , L. casei , L. lactis subsp. lactis, L. raffinolactis, P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus isolated from healthy female vaginal fluid, are able to inhibit the growth of C. albicans, G. vaginalis and N. gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, C. albcans and S. aureus [13-17].
Earlier, Raiz and others (2010) isolated 72 strains from yogurt and fecal materials of human, chick, parrot and cat. Only two isolates namely L. fermentum and L. acidophilus were found to produce bacteriocins having antimicrobial potential against cephalosporin resistant E. coli. In a clinical trial performed using capsules containing L. fermentum RC-14 and L. rhamnosus GR-1, Gil et al. (2010) have proven their effectiveness for the treatment of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Recently, L. fermentum was isolated from human milk and its bacteriocin has been assessed for preventing urinary tract infections [19-23]. Probiotics recommended for eradication of common human UTI vaginal pathogens are enlisted in Table A [24-26].
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