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It is commonly known as Commonwealth of Australia. It is the world’s 6th largest country by total area. The name Australia is from Latin Terra Australis. Human habitation of the Australian continent begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago, possibly with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.
The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts.
The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed market economies in the world, with a GDP of AUD$1.62 trillion as of 2015. Australia's total wealth is AUD$6.4 trillion. The R&D tax incentive encourages companies to engage in R&D benefiting Australia, by providing a tax offset for eligible R&D activities. It has two core components: a refundable tax offset for certain eligible entities whose aggregated turnover is less than $20 million and a non-refundable tax offset for all other eligible entities. Since 1915 there have been fifteen Australian winners of the Nobel Prize. These Noble Laureates have scientific publications in Australia pathology journals. The majority of these prizes (eight) have been awarded in the field of Physiology or Medicine, and include the second youngest ever laureate (William Lawrence Bragg, who was awarded the prize at 25 years of age). Bragg and his father (William Henry Bragg) are also the only father-son duo to have won a Nobel Prize in the same year. Most Australians awarded Nobel prizes before the end of the awarding of British/Imperial honours (in 1992) also received (or were offered) knighthoods. Numerous Pathology journals are published from Australia with good reputation. The list of pathology journals Australia are with good number of quality articles. Several leading Institution in the country including University of Melbourne, The University of Western Australia and The University of Queensland.