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The country in the northern part of North America is Canada. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains; about four-fifths of the country's population of 35 million people live near the southern border. The majority of Canada has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border.
Canada has the fifteenth largest (PPP) economy in the world (measured in US dollars at market exchange rates), is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Seven (G7). Canada’s economic fundamentals remain strong, well supported by solid protection of property rights and an independent judiciary that enforces the rule of law effectively. The country’s commitment to open-market policies that facilitate global trade and investment flows has been strong, and the economy has demonstrated admirable resilience in the face of recent years’ international and domestic challenges. The R&D intensity leader is South Korea, a country with which Canada is now bound in a free-trade agreement, creating new competitive pressures for Canadian businesses.
Canada has tumbled out of the top 10 research and development (R&D) spenders since the Great Recession, steadily ceding ground to more aggressive nations on a host of innovation measures. Canadian scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity, in 2011. These Noble Laureates have scientific publications in Canadian pathology journals. The pathology journals canada publishes peer-reviewed articles relevant to practice of pathology and laboratory medicine. Numerous Pathology journals are published from canada with good reputation. The list of pathology journals canada are with good number of quality articles. Several leading Institutions in the country including The McGill University, University of Ottawa, Queen's University, Western University, the university of British columbia and McMaster University.