Altered Redox Regulation as Cofactor in Comorbidities and Accelerated Aging in HIV Infection Evolution and Antiretroviral Treatment
Lizette Gil del Valle*
Clinical Pharmacology Department, Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine (IPK), La Habana, Cuba
- Corresponding Author:
- Lizette Gil del Valle
Noon Highway Bride
Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine (IPK), La Habana, Cuba
Tel: 0537 2553234/2553235
Fax: 0537 204605
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: August 12, 2014; Accepted Date: September 15, 2014; Published Date: September 22, 2014
Citation: del Valle LG (2014) Altered Redox Regulation as Cofactor in Comorbidities and Accelerated Aging in HIV Infection Evolution and Antiretroviral Treatment . Epidemiology (Sunnyvale) 4:171. doi:10.4172/2161-1165.1000171
Copyright: © 2014 del Valle LG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Metabolic issues persist in HIV patients who are otherwise stable with and without antiretroviral treatment. Metabolic alterations are associated to chronic inflammation, severe mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress as critical factors influencing HIV disease outcomes even during antiretroviral treatment. These aspects could also be involved in comorbidities and premature aging. Both factors should be managed during therapy and they should be focus of intense ongoing investigation.
The aim of this mini-review is to describe essential mechanisms of in vivo reactive oxygen species generation, antioxidants pathways, and oxidative stress involved in HIV disease. Potential impact on reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, cellular function, and how these responses change could mediate aging in pathophysiological situations are discussed. Accrual experimental and clinical reports analyses allow us a better understanding of various inter-related contributing factors. In addition, oxidative stress as an often-overlooked link between HIV-infection and the progression of aids, during antiretroviral treatment, is analyzed. Potential long-term consequences of antioxidant treatment require on-going investigation in order to obtain important clinical issues that have recently been reported. Currently, the most practical advice is to start antiretroviral therapy early and to manage traditional risk factors of non?aids-related conditions.