An Update on Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance: A Review
Harry F Dorrell*, Thomas I Gee and Geoff Middleton
School of Sport and Exercise Science, College of Social Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, England, UK
- *Corresponding Author:
- Harry F Dorrell
School of Sport and Exercise Science
College of Social Sciences, University of Lincoln
Lincoln, England, UK
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E-mail: [email protected]
Received:February 18, 2016 Accepted: March 10, 2016 Published: March 17, 2016
Citation:Dorrell HF, Gee TI, Middleton G (2016) An Update on Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance: A Review. Sports Nutr Ther 1: 107. doi: 10.4172/2473-6449.1000107
Copyright: © 2016 Dorrell HF, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Supplementary creatine, available in many different forms but most commonly monohydrate, is a legal and reportedly safe to consume nutritional ergogenic aid. After searching internationally recognised research databases, this review provides and update on the current literature on the physiological effects of creatine supplementation on performance whilst also discussing the underlying physiology regarding the synthesis and dietary provision of creatine as well as addressing issues of safety and the ethical considerations of usage. Research has shown that regular consumption of supplementary creatine can raise associated content within skeletal muscle. Subsequently, there is an extensive, and still growing, body of the literature supporting the efficacy of creatine supplementation on enhancing exercise performance, exercise tolerance, muscle strength and lean body mass. Moreover, little scientific evidence exists showing any unfavourable effects on individuals who are free from illness and disease. This review consolidates the current literature and provides application to the athletic setting which is purposeful for those choosing to either recommend or consume this nutritional ergogenic aid. At this current time, a traditional loading and maintenance supplementation protocol is advised as contemporary research studies are still to unravel the benefits of alternative approaches.