Biodegradation of Keratin from Chicken Feathers by Fungal Species as a Means of Sustainable Development
|Jai Godheja* and Shekhar SK|
|Department of Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India|
|Corresponding Author :||Jai Godheja
Department of Biotechnology
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received September 23, 2013; Accepted June 05, 2014; Published June 10, 2014|
|Citation: Godheja J, Shekhar SK (2014) Biodegradation of Keratin from Chicken Feathers by Fungal Species as a Means of Sustainable Development. J Bioremed Biodeg 5:232 doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000232|
|Copyright: © 2014 Godheja J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Keratinolytic microorganisms have a great importance in feather waste degradation and its use for improvement of livestock feed and production of protein hydrolysates. Annually several thousand tons of feather wastes are discharged into the surrounding environment as a by-product of commercial poultry processing. Microorganisms could minimize regulatory problems of uncontrolled accumulation of waste feathers. This residue is almost pure keratin, which is not easily degradable by common proteolytic enzymes.
The present study deals with identification of fungi that play a significant role in the degradation of chicken feather and keratin degradation ability of the isolated fungi. Feathers of broiler chicken were collected from Jaggi poultry farm, Mandir Hasaud, Raipur. Fungi were isolated by feather baiting technique. Feathers were inoculated in Sobouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium and their pure culture was prepared. Fungus were identified by Lacto phenol cotton blue staining method as Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Fusarium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Aspergillus Flavus. The pure culture were grown in mineral media with 500 mg of feathers as a sole source of Nitrogen and Carbon and incubated for the period of 25 days. At 5 days intervals, the biochemical changes associated with biodegradation was evaluated by analyzing the culture filtrate. The release of Nitrate, Cystine, Cysteine and methionine components during the process of biodegradation was studied which proved the efficient degradation of keratin. There was also a change in pH of the medium towards alkalinity. Mucor and Aspergillus Flavus were the most powerful bio remedial fungus in the current study. With an increasing world-wide concern for the environment it is possible to use these six fungus for the degradation of enormous quantity of waste feathers. Biodegradation leads to recycle the wastes and thus maintaining the environmental quantity of the biosphere.