Biological, Technical, and Financial Feasibilities Study of Zero Water Discharge (ZWD) System Application in Low Salinity White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Urban Aquaculture, Study Case: Gresik District, East Java, IndonesiaMuhammad H1, Situmorang ML2, Djohan YA2, Aditiawati P2 and Suantika G2*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Suantika G
Institute Teknologi Bandung (ITB)
Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132 Indonesia
Microbial Biotechnology Research Group
School of Life Sciences and Technology, Indonesia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 30, 2016; Accepted Date: July 15, 2016; Published Date: July 30, 2016
Citation: Muhammad H, Situmorang ML, Djohan YA, Aditiawati P, Suantika G (2016) Biological, Technical, and Financial Feasibilities Study of Zero Water Discharge (ZWD) System Application in Low Salinity White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) Urban Aquaculture, Study Case: Gresik District, East Java, Indonesia. J Fisheries Livest Prod 4:197. doi:10.4172/2332-2608.1000197
Copyright: © 2016 Muhammad H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The study was aimed to analyze low salinity white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) production feasibility using zero water discharge (ZWD) system. The research was conducted through five constitutive steps: (1) ZWD system installation and white shrimp post-larvae acclimatization to low salinity water (5 ppt), (2) White shrimp cultivation using low salinity ZWD system at three different stocking densities (200 in d/m3, 300 in d/m3, and 400 in d/m3) in 20 m3 ponds, (3) Biological feasibility and water quality analysis, (4) Technical feasibility analysis, and (5) Production scheme development and financial feasibility analysis to produce 1,000 kg shrimp/cycle. The best biological performance was achieved at 400 in d/m3 stocking density with survival rate, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and total biomass values of 70.59 ± 6.15%, 1.14 ± 0.14, 4.40 ± 0.25%BW/day, and 44.13 ± 4.44 kg, respectively. The best pH level (7.61- 8.27), DO (4.9-8.5 mg/L), temperature (29.3-30.1°C), NH4 + level (0.0-0.5 mg/L), NO2 - level (0.0-5.0 mg/L), and NO3 - level (5.0-30.0 mg/L) were observed at 200 in d/m3 stocking density. Considering these parameters: water sources, biophysical condition, and land topography, market access and material supplier, the ZWD system was technically feasible for the north-coastal areas of East Java. Production scheme development needed six operational units consisted of (1) purchasing and inventory, (2) water and wastewater treatment, (3) shrimp production, (4) harvesting, (5) transaction and archive, and (6) marketing and distribution. To produce 1,000 kg shrimp/cycle in 70 days culture period, 2-3 human resources and 1,000-1,250 m2 production area were required. Financial analysis showed that ZWD system was feasible at 300 in d/m3 and 400 in d/m3 stocking density, showing positive NPV Rp 47,593,537 and Rp 69,439,955, and IRR value higher than discount factor of 13.40% and 15.49%, respectively. It can be concluded that the implementation of ZWD system for urban shrimp aquaculture production at low salinity (5 ppt) and high stocking density (300 in d/m3 and 400 in d/m3) was biologically, technically, and financially feasible to be applied in Gresik on the north-coastal area of East Java Province, Indonesia.