Carcinoma of GallbladderVinod Kumar Dixit* and Abhilash Velimparampil Babu
Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Prof. Dr. Vinod Kumar Dixit
MD, DM, A-6, New Medical Enclave
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India 221 005
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: March 30, 2015; Accepted date: July 17, 2015; Published date: July 25, 2015
Citation: Dixit VK, Babu AV (2015) Carcinoma of Gallbladder. J Gastrointest Dig Sys 5:310. doi:10.4172/2161-069X.1000310
Copyright: © 2015 Dixit VK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License; which permits unrestricted use; distribution; and reproduction in any medium; provided the original author and source are credited.
Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%−95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently often proving fatal. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the epidemiologic aspects including risk factors, clinical presentation, imaging studies, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important immutable risk factors. Environmental triggers play a critical role in gallbladder cancer development, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer.