Current Pharmacologic Otoprotective Agents in or Approaching Clinical Trials: How They Elucidate Mechanisms of Noise-Induced Hearing LossCoral Tieu and Kathleen C Campbell*
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Illinois, USA
- Corresponding Author:
- Kathleen C Campbell
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
PO Box 19629, Springfield
IL 62794-9629, Illinois, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: December 17, 2012; Accepted December 26, 2012; Published date: December 31, 2012
Citation: Tieu C, Campbell KC (2012) Current Pharmacologic Otoprotective Agents in or Approaching Clinical Trials: How They Elucidate Mechanisms of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Otolaryngology 3:130. doi:10.4172/2161-119X.1000130
Copyright: © 2012 Tieu C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Through understanding the underlying mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), several promising
pharmacologic otoprotective agents are in development. Conversely, the experimental results with these protective agents further elucidate NIHL mechanisms. This article reviews the major classes of otoprotective agents for NIHL that have undergone published peer reviewed clinical trials, or are currently in or approaching FDA approved clinical trials. Both prophylactic and rescue agents are included. The classes of agents include antioxidants, vasodilators, and glucocorticoids. Apoptotic pathway inhibitors are briefly mentioned. For antioxidants, some of the differences in the exact antioxidant mechanisms are included. Protective agents reviewed include D-methionine, N-acetylcysteine, ebselen, ACE Mg, Acuval, CoQ10, molecular hydrogen, magnesium as a single agent, and dexamethasone. The advantages, disadvantages, and state of development are included for each agent. Both safety and efficacy are considered as are considerations for specific patient populations if known. Further, results of animal and clinical trials are briefly described from the published literature.
Although no pharmacologic agent is yet approved by the FDA for clinical use to prevent or treat noise induced hearing loss at this time, it is hoped that within the next decade and perhaps within the next few years one or more agents will be available for clinical use. Further it is hoped that through an understanding of the underlying mechanisms and noise-induced hearing loss and otoprotection, even more safe and effective pharmacologic otoprotective agents will be developed.