Current Status of Endoscopic Treatment of Advanced Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
- *Corresponding Author:
- Varayu Prachayakul
Siriraj GI Endoscopy Center
Division of Gastroenterology
Department of Internal Medicine
Faculty of Medicine
Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok
Received date: January 03, 2014; Accepted date: January 27, 2014; Published date: February 06, 2014
Citation: Prachayakul V (2014) Current Status of Endoscopic Treatment of Advanced Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma. J Gastroint Dig Syst 4:168. doi:10.4172/2161-069X.1000168
Copyright: © 2014 Prachayakul V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Cholangiocarcinoma is a high-mortality primary hepatic malignancy. A higher incidence of cholangiocarcinoma was reported in Asia, especially Southeast Asia, than in Western countries. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a specific type of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that involves the hepatic hilum and has a worse prognosis. More than half of the patients with jaundice are inoperable at the time of first diagnosis. Therefore, biliary drainage is the mainstay of palliative treatment in these patients. Endoscopic biliary drainage via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, the modality of choice, for the advanced hilar type is more difficult and complex than those in distal cholangiocarcinoma. Endoscopists should consider many factors before selecting the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Here we discuss the factors systematically. In cases of transpapillary approach failure, other therapeutic modalities should be considered. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is the most popular method in such cases. At the present, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage, especially hepaticogastrostomy, is an alternative procedure with the same efficacy and low complications when it was carried out in the expert hands. Furthermore, recent locoregional therapies for tumor control including trans-luminal photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation also benefit these patients.