Determining Risk Factors of a Non-Point Source Outbreak of Campylobacter Cases Using Case-Case and Case-Control Studies
Received Date: Sep 19, 2015 / Accepted Date: Oct 23, 2015 / Published Date: Oct 28, 2015
Background: Investigating foodborne outbreaks is a resource and time-intensive process using traditional casecontrol methodology. The use of case-case studies in outbreak investigations is not well studied, although they require fewer resources to conduct and limit selection and recall bias. In this study we investigated a cluster of Campylobacter infections using almost simultaneous case-control and case-case studies to compare results from the two methodologies.
Methods: In 2011 a significant increase in Campylobacter cases was detected in Pima County, AZ through routine surveillance. To determine potential sources of the outbreak we conducted two studies. The case-control study used randomly selected non-ill controls. The case-case study used historical surveillance data. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for infection.
Results: Statistically significant risk factors associated with disease differed by design with travel (OR=4.1), Hispanic (OR=4.5), and youth (OR=3.6) in the case-control and untreated water (OR=3.4) and fresh eggs (OR=2.5) in the case-case. Effect modification by travel was found for untreated water (OR=14.0 for travelers vs. OR=undefined for non-travelers) and eggs (OR=11.5 for travelers vs. OR=1.5 for non-travelers).
Conclusions: Travel history, a commonly reported risk factor, is a distal part of the exposure pathway. These studies exposed the more proximal cause to be largely attributed to travelers who had exposure to untreated water and fresh eggs. Case-case methods were found to be useful in outbreak investigations of a foodborne illness. This outbreak is also an example where a student response team response with a local public health department.
Keywords: Case-case studies; Case-control studies; Foodborne outbreaks; Campylobacter
Citation: Pogreba-Brown K, Ernst K, Woodson L, Harris RB (2015) Determining Risk Factors of a Non-Point Source Outbreak of Campylobacter Cases Using Case-Case and Case-Control Studies. Epidemiology (sunnyvale) 5:203. Doi: 10.4172/2161-1165.1000203
Copyright: © 2015 Pogreba-Brown K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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