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Evaluation of Salivary Interleukin-1beta (IL-1and#195;and#381;and#194;and#178;) Level in Relation to the Periodontal Status in Smoker and Non-smoker Individuals | Abstract
ISSN: 2376-032X

JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
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Research Article

Evaluation of Salivary Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) Level in Relation to the Periodontal Status in Smoker and Non-smoker Individuals

Shanaz Mohammad Gaphor1*, Shokhan Hama Ali2* and Mustafa Jamel Abdullah1*

1Oral Medicine Clinic of the School of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq

2Periodontology clinic of the shorish dental teaching hospital, Kurdistan region, Iraq

*Corresponding Author:
Shanaz Mohammad Gaphor, B.D.S., M.Sc, PhD
Oral Medicine, Oral Medicine clinic of the school of Dentistry
University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq
Tel: +9647703452644
E-mail: [email protected]
Shokhan Hama Ali, B.D.S., M.Sc periodontology
Periodontology clinic of the shorish dental teaching hospital
Kurdistan region, Iraq
Tel: +9647701571492
E-mail: [email protected]
Mustafa Jamel Abdullah, B.D.S, M.Sc
Oral Medicine, Oral Medicine Clinic of the school of dentistry
University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq
Tel: +9647701922796
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: March 07, 2014; Accepted date: May 05, 2014; Published date: May 12, 2014

Citation: Gaphor SM, Ali SH, Abdullah MJ (2014) Evaluation of Salivary Interleukin- 1beta (IL-1β) Level in Relation to the Periodontal Status in Smoker and Non smoker Individuals. J Interdiscipl Med Dent Sci 2:120. doi:10.4172/2376-032X.1000120

Copyright: © 2014 Gaphor SM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Smoking is the major risk factor in the periodontal diseases. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been associated with the immunopathology of periodontitis. IL-1β has been particularly studied as a critical determinant of tissue destruction in periodontitis. Patients and Methods: The sample comprised 80 male volunteers (40 smokers and 40 non-smokers); aged 25-40 year old. Personal information was obtained from all subjects. Periodontal condition was measured including plaque index, bleeding index and clinical attachment level and bone loss. The assay of IL-1β was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Chi square test, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: The reported mean value of plaque index was significantly higher among non smoker, and smoker periodontitis (1.72, and 1.87, respectively) than non-smoker, and smoker healthy groups (0.44, and 0.64 respectively) (P=0.000). The mean value of bleeding on probing was significantly higher among non-smoker and smoker periodontitis (0.22, and 0.06 respectively) than nonsmoker and smoker healthy groups (0.04, and 0.01 respectively) (P=0.000). The mean value of IL-1β was significantly higher among smoker and non-smoker periodontitis (525.8 pg/ml, 357 pg/ml, respectively) than group of smoker and non-smoker healthy persons (124 pg/ml, 81.5 pg/ml, respectively) (P=0.000). Smokers with periodontitis reported significantly higher CAL than non-smokers with periodontitis (3.02 and 2.5, respectively) (p value ≤ 0.05). The bone loss was significantly higher among smokers with periodontitis than non-smoker with periodontitis (2.6, 2.14, respectively) (P value=0.04). The correlation between salivary IL-1β and PI, BOP, CAL, bone loss was significant (r=0.773, 0.335, 0.941, 0.939 respectively) (correlation <0.001) (for all clinical parameters). Conclusions: Positive association was observed between periodontal diseases and smoking, salivary IL-1β were positively associated with clinical signs of periodontal disease and it appears to serve as biomarker of periodontitis.


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