Gross Motor Performance by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Children on TGMD-2 | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2375-4494

Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior
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Research Article

Gross Motor Performance by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Children on TGMD-2

Ting Liu1*, Michelle Hamilton1, Lyndsay Davis1 and Sayed El Garhy2

1Department of Health and Human Performance, Texas State University, USA

2Fayoum University, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Ting Liu
Department of Health and Human Performance
Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Tel: 512-245-8259
Fax: 512-245-8678
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: October 25, 2013; Accepted Date: January 06, 2014; Published Date: January 13, 2014

Citation: Liu T, Hamilton M, Davis L, Garhy SEl (2014) Gross Motor Performance by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Children on Tgmd-2. J Child Adolesc Behav 2:123. doi: 10.4172/2375-4494.1000123

Copyright: © 2014 Liu T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objective: To examine the gross motor skill performance using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-
2) on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their age matched peers (5-10 years).
Methods: A total of 21 children with ASD (M=7.57 years) and 21 age matched typically developing children
(M=7.38 years) participated in this study. TGMD-2 is a standardized test to assess 12 gross motor skills for children.
All study participants completed the TGMD-2 assessments. A MANOVA was conducted on TGMD-2 scores to
compare motor performance of children with ASD and typically developing children.
Results: For the locomotor subtest, 67% children with ASD received poor standard scores and 40% of scores
were very poor. About 60% children with ASD had poor standard scores and 33% of scores were very poor on object
control skills as described in the TGMD-2 manual. For overall gross motor quotient scores, 81% children with ASD
were below 79 and classified as poor and about 76% children scored below 70 and received very poor rating. A
MANOVA analysis revealed significant performance difference between children with ASD and typically developing
children (p<.01). The effect sizes (ES) describing motor delays of the study participants between the two groups
were large (>.80).
Conclusion and implication: For educators, therapists, and practitioners, it is important to note that children
across the autism spectrum showed significant delays in gross motor skill performance when compared to their age
matched peers. Locomotion and object control skills are fundamental motor skills in which children interact with
their environment and other children. Developing a therapeutic intervention includes those gross motor skills may
positively impact children with ASD’s movement competence.