Identification of Microbiota for Activated Sludge Acclimated By Paper Mill Effluent Kraft E1 Bioremediation
|Lívia Cordi1, Márcia Regina Assalin2, Alexandre Nunes Ponezi3 and Nelson Durán1,4*|
|1Institute of Chemistry, Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, P.O.Box 6154, 13083-970, Campinas-SP, SP, Brazil|
|2EMBRAPA (Environment), Rodovia SP 340 km 127.5, Tanquinho Velho, P.O.Box 69, 13820-000, Jaguariúna, SP, Brazil|
|3Division of Microbial Resources, Research Centre for Chemistry, Biology and Agriculture (CPQBA), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, P.O.Box 6171, Campinas, SP, 13081-970, Brazil|
|4Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP, Brazil|
|Corresponding Author :||Nelson Duran
Institute of Chemistry
Biological Chemistry Laboratory
Center of Natural and Human Sciences
Universidade Federal do ABC
Santo André, SP, Brazil
Tel: 55 19 3521-3149
|Received: December 22, 2011; Accepted: October 12, 2012; Published: October 14, 2012|
|Citation: Cordi L, Assalin MR, Ponezi AN, Durán N (2012) Identification of Microbiota for Activated Sludge Acclimated By Paper Mill Effluent Kraft E1 Bioremediation. J Bioremed Biodeg 3:169. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000169|
|Copyright: © 2012 Cordi L, et al. This is an open-a ccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Conventional systems treating paper effluents and cellulose are quite efficient in the reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). In general, there is primary stage clarification followed by secondary treatment, usually with a biological system (activated sludge). However, for the efficient degradation of some organic compounds in this effluent, adapted microorganism accomplish the treatment which are necessary resulting in effluents with low concentrations of recalcitrant compounds. There are two methods for microorganism acclimation: genes cloning or natural.
In this work, the original biomass collected from a domestic sewage treatment plant was adapted for application in the bioremediation of paper mill effluent, Kraft E1. So, the aim of this work was verifying the correlation of protozoa organisms and physical-chemical parameters during the acclimation period.
The acclimation of the biomass was verified mainly through the reduction of COD. The monitoring of biomass growth was followed by measurement of suspended solids and volatile suspended solids. Parameters such as pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and temperature were also monitored daily. The biological study was accomplished microscopically through the identification of protozoa that are considered bioindicators of the activated sludge system. The biomass acclimation period was 39 days. The stabilization of the system was observed through constant rates of total COD (56%). The suspended solids at the beginning of the acclimation phase were from 1580 mg L-¹ to 3580 mg L-¹, indicating biomass growth. A small acclimation period was necessary to observe the diversity of protozoa, mainly free ciliates, but nematodes were also present, indicating poor sludge sediment. At the end of the acclimation phase predominantly rotifers, but some free ciliates, ciliated communities and fixed ciliated were observed, indicating a good purification capacity of the system. Within the organisms amoeba was observed and this indicates good quality to the final effluent. Then, it is possible to correlate the biota presence with the high capacity of COD removal from the activated sludge system.