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Identification of X. laevis Vitellogenin Peptide Biomarkers for Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9872

Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Open Access

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Research Article

Identification of X. laevis Vitellogenin Peptide Biomarkers for Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Leah G Luna* and Katherine Coady

Toxicology & Environmental Research & Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Leah G.
Luna Toxicology, Environmental Research and Consulting
The Dow Chemical Company
Building 1803 Washington Street
Midland, MI 48674, USA
Tel: 989-636-2428
Fax: 989-638-9305
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: June 12, 2014; Accepted date: June 28, 2014; Published date: June 30, 2014

Citation: Luna LG, Coady K (2014) Identification of X. laevis Vitellogenin Peptide Biomarkers for Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Anal Bioanal Tech 5:194 doi: 10.4172/2155-9872.1000194

Copyright: © 2014 Luna LG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Mass spectrometry (MS) offers an exciting possibility as a highly specific method for measuring vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in toxicity tests that are aimed at evaluating perturbations in the endocrine system. Typically MS approaches to protein quantification attempt to measure intact proteins or rely on enzymatic digestion procedures to reduce the size of the protein into smaller peptide fragments which can be utilized as biomarkers for quantification. With the latter approach, the MS technique allows both the direct measurement of the VTG intact peptide biomarker mass-to-charge ratio and the generation of peptide fragmentation data for further confirmation in complex matrices. In this study we utilize trypsin digestion and a C18 Zip Tip clean-up method to generate predictably cleaved peptides to identify VTG biomarkers from small quantities of plasma collected from the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). From the 201,545 Da X. laevis VTG precursor protein, results indicate 2 peptides which would be excellent biomarker candidates for the quantitative measurements of VTG. This methodology may be particularly useful in the context of the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay, a Tier 2 test which is currently under development as a part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.


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