Microbial TLR Agonists and Humoral Immunopathogenesis in HIV Disease
Received Date: Dec 20, 2012 / Accepted Date: Jan 29, 2013 / Published Date: Feb 02, 2013
Although T cells are the primary and most-studied targets of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), B cells, especially memory B lymphocytes, are also chronically depleted in the course of HIV disease. Although the lack of CD4+ T cell help may explain these deficiencies, intrinsic defects in B lymphocytes appear to contribute to B cell depletion and reduced antibody (Ab) production in the setting of HIV, especially of some antigens eliciting T cell-independent responses. The gut mucosal barrier is disrupted in HIV disease, resulting in increased systemic exposure to microbial products such as Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) agonists. The association of enhanced systemic levels of TLR agonists and B cell dysfunction in HIV disease is not understood. This review discusses the potential role of microbial TLR agonists in the B cell depletion, enhanced autoantibody production and impaired responses to vaccination observed in HIV-infected hosts. Increased microbial translocation in HIV infection may drive B cells to produce autoantibodies and increase susceptibilities of B cells to apoptosis through activation-induced cell death. Determining the mechanisms of B cell perturbations in HIV disease will inform the design of novel strategies of improve immune responses to vaccines, reduce opportunistic infections and slow disease progression.
Keywords: Antibody; Toll-like receptor; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Citation: Yu X, Jiang W, Li Z, Kilby JM, Zhou Z (2013) Microbial TLR Agonists and Humoral Immunopathogenesis in HIV Disease. Epidemiol 3:120. Doi: 10.4172/2161-1165.1000120
Copyright: © 2013 Yu X, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.