Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Mini-Review on the Use of Liquid Membranes in the Extraction of Platinum Group Metals from Mining and Metal Refinery Wastewaters/Side-Streams | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-6199

Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Mini Review

Mini-Review on the Use of Liquid Membranes in the Extraction of Platinum Group Metals from Mining and Metal Refinery Wastewaters/Side-Streams

Francis Moyo and Roman Tandlich*
Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
Corresponding Author : Roman Tandlich
Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University
P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140
South Africa
Tel: +27-46-603-8825
Fax: +27-46-636-1205
E-Mail: [email protected]
Received May 09, 2014; Accepted May 28, 2014; Published Jun 01, 2014
Citation: Moyo F, Tandlich R (2014) Mini-Review on the Use of Liquid Membranes in the Extraction of Platinum Group Metals from Mining and Metal Refinery Wastewaters/Side-Streams. J Bioremed Biodeg 5:228. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000228
Copyright: © 2014 Tandlich R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google


The current mini-review focuses on the use of liquid membranes in the platinum group metal (PGM/PGMs) extraction from various types of wastewaters to prevent environmental pollution; and for the metal recovery to address the scarcity of the PGMs in the industrial cycles. The bulk liquid membranes have been used to the extracted PGMs from the (acidic) aqueous media with recoveries of up to 96.3 ± 2.5% of the original PGM amount. The extraction time generally ranges from 2 to 24 hours. The bulk membrane liquid in the PGM extraction will depend on the covalent structure of the extractant, the feed phase PGM concentration and the complex of the PGM in question that is actually extracted from the aqueous environment. The advantages of this type of liquid membrane include its operational simplicity, but the disadvantages include limited possibility to improve the extraction performance of the system. Literature data are encouraging as they indicate that extraction of PGMs from mining and metal-refinery side-streams does not suffer from interference from metal contaminants that are commonly found in the mining and metal refinery side-streams, e.g. iron. Thus further research should focus on the application of ELM to extraction of PGMs from said wastewaters and major research drive should focus on the use of the Taylorvortex column and the non-Newtonian ELMs. With the supported liquid membranes, 78-82% of the original PGM content could be recovered from model side-streams. The selectivity of the extraction for individual PGMs can be controlled by the extractant used. 


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 6613

Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation received 6613 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • CAS Source Index (CASSI)
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Academic Keys
  • JournalTOCs
  • ResearchBible
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  • Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA)
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • MIAR
Share This Page