Self-Esteem in a German Population Sample of Children and Adolescents: Association with Demographic and Psychosocial Variables
Birgit Kröner-Herwig*, Lena Bläsing, Jennifer Maas and Philipp Reckling
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Georg-Elias-Müller Institute of Psychology, University of Germany, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Birgit Kröner-Herwig
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
Georg-Elias-Müller Institute of Psychology University of Germany
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 06, 2014; Accepted Date: September 05, 2014; Published Date: September 09, 2014
Citation: Kröner-Herwig B, Bläsing L, Maas J, Reckling P (2014) Self-Esteem in a German Population Sample of Children and Adolescents: Association with Demographic and Psychosocial Variables. J Child Adolesc Behav 2:158. doi: 10.4172/2375-4494.1000158
Copyright: © 2014 Birgit Kröner-Herwig et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Research has shown that high self-esteem (SE) is a core feature of psychological health and well-being. A population sample of German youths (11-16 years, n = 3509) was surveyed in 2 waves regarding SE and various demographic and psychosocial variables assumed to be related. Parents’ reports were also gathered about their children. Mean SE-scores indicated a generally high level of SE in the sample. Girls displayed significantly lower SE than boys with an effect size of d=0.34. Moderate to strong associations were found with satisfaction in different domains of life, with the highest correlation found for appearance and the lowest for health. Girls were in general more dissatisfied with life. Internalizing and also externalizing were negatively correlated with SE, particularly in girls. Also a higher level of somatic symptoms was associated with lower SE. A prospective analysis revealed that dysfunctional parenting and family climate significantly predicted SE explaining more than 20% of variance in SE in girls, but only 10% in boys. Structural social data (e.g. SES) did not impact SE. The study confirmed the significant role of SE for psychological and somatic well-being and the relevance of familial interaction in its formation. The observed gender differences underline the necessity to undertake sex specific analyses in this area of research. Prospective research should be expedited.