Spontaneous Preterm Delivery, Particularly with Reduced Fetal Growth, is Associated with DNA Hypomethylation of Tumor Related Genes
|Xinhua Chen1*, Guang Bai2 and Theresa O Scholl1|
|1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rowan University - School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, NJ, USA|
|2Department of Neural and Pain Science, University of Maryland, School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD, USA|
|Corresponding Author :||Xinhua Chen
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rowan University - School of Osteopathic Medicine
Stratford, NJ, USA
Tel: 856-566- 6350
|Received: November 17, 2015; Accepted: January 22, 2016; Published: January 29, 2016|
|Citation: Chen X, Bai G, Scholl TO (2016) Spontaneous Preterm Delivery, Particularly with Reduced Fetal Growth, is Associated with DNA Hypomethylation of Tumor Related Genes. J Preg Child Health 3:215. doi:10.4172/2376-127X.1000215|
|Copyright: © 2016 Chen X, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Background: Preterm delivery and sub-optimal fetal growth are associated with each other and affect both mother and infant. Our aim was to determine (i) whether there are detectable differences in DNA methylation between early and late gestation and (ii) whether changes in DNA methylation from entry are associated with spontaneous preterm delivery with and without reduced fetal growth.
Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. Gene specific methylation was measured by Methyl-Profiler PCR Array in a Human Breast Cancer Signature Panel of 24 genes from maternal peripheral leukocytes genomic DNA at entry and 3rd trimester (sampled at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, respectively). Clonal bisulfite DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the changes in selected genes (CYP1B1, GADD45A and CXCL12). Multivariable analysis was used for data analysis.
Results: There was significantly decrease in DNA methylation in 15 of 24 genes during the 3rd trimester in cases of spontaneous preterm delivery (n=23) as compared to the controls (n=19) (p<0.05-p<0.01 for each gene). Similar results were observed by bisulfite sequencing for 3 genes. The change in DNA methylation between late and early gestation was significantly different in cases (overall decrease in methylation was -4.0 ± 1.5%) compared to the controls (overall increase in methylation was 12.6 ± 2.19%, p<0.0001). A graded pattern of DNA methylation was observed in 15 genes. Cases who delivered preterm with reduced fetal growth had the lowest level of methylation, cases delivering preterm without reduced fetal growth were next and term controls were highest in methylation (p for trend <0.05 to p<0.01 for each gene). Cases of preterm delivery also had significantly lower dietary choline intake. Conclusions: These data suggest that epigenetic modification is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, spontaneous preterm delivery with reduced fetal growth in particular.