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Australia officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia, it is a country which comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Australia is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the world's 12th-largest economy. In 2014 Australia had the world's fifth-highest per capita income.
The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests.
Australia is a country, and a continent. It is located in Oceania between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean. It is the sixth largest country in the world with a total area of 7,686,850 square kilometres (2,967,910 sq mi) (including Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island), making it slightly smaller than the 48 states of the contiguous United States and 31.5 times larger than the United Kingdom.
Australia is a wealthy country; it generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing. It has a market economy, a relatively high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland in 2013, although the nation's poverty rate increased from 10.2% to 11.8%, from 2000/01 to 2013.
Australia is the largest alliance dedicated to making health and medical research a higher national priority. Since 1915 there have been fifteen Australian winners of the Nobel Prize. The majority of these prizes (eight) have been awarded in the field of Physiology or Medicine, and include the second youngest ever laureate. Most Australians awarded Nobel prizes before the end of the awarding of British/Imperial honours (in 1992) also received (or were offered) knighthoods. Numerous pharma journals are published from Australia with good reputation like Australian Journal of Pharmacy, List of pharmaceutical science journals Australia, Pharmacology Medical Journal of Australia, Pharmaceutical science journals Australia, Australian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, List of pharmaceutical science journals, etc.
The important research institutes in Australia are:
1) Alzheimer's research in Australia
2) Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute
3) Neuroscience Research Australia
4) Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute
5) Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute
Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%.
Australia ranks 35th in the world and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adults and nearly two thirds (63%) of its adult population is either overweight or obese.
Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP. Australia introduced universal health care in 1975.