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Russia, the world’s largest nation, borders European and Asian countries as well as the Pacific and Arctic oceans. Its landscape ranges from tundra and forests to subtropical beaches. It’s famous for novelists Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, plus the Bolshoi and Mariinsky ballet companies. The Russian Federation is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, and Lithuania in the west; Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea along the southern border. The Russian economy was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The growth brought an improvement in the standard of living of the average Russian citizen and also brought economic stability that Russia had not experienced in at least a decade. Russia remains highly dependent on oil and natural gas exports as a source of income. If world oil prices continue to be depressed, the Russian economy would likely experience slow growth. Many economists have argued that, in the long run, for Russia to achieve sustainable growth, it must reduce its dependence on exports of oil, natural gas, and other commodities and diversify into more stable production.
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this island nation produced 17 Nobel laureates so far. Russia has established infrastructure for advanced defense technology. During last few years Russia has been aimed at establishing a new system of R&D and innovation statistics in the Russian Federation meeting requirements of the market economy and compatible with the international standards which include first statistical methods, software, data bases and publications. Thus, all necessary building-blocks have been provided to really form a full-scale system for R&D and innovation statistics. According to the report by M. N. Kotsemir, 2012, Russia is ranked number 15th preceded by The Netherland in publishing highest number of articles globally. Numerous pharmaceutical science journals are published from Russia with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Lomonosov Moscow State University, Saint-Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and others are spearheading the medical research.