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Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain is a sovereign state to a great extent situated on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and close to the North African coast. Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in Europe. By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union.
Its terrain is circumscribed toward the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea aside from a little land limit with Gibraltar; toward the north and upper east by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and toward the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. Alongside France and Morocco, it is one of just three nations to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Reaching out to 1,214 km (754 miles), the Portugal–Spain fringe is the longest continuous outskirt inside the European Union. Spanish territory includes two archipelagos: the Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast. It also includes two major exclaves, Ceuta and Melilla, in continental North Africa; and the islands and peñones (rocks) of Alborán, Alhucemas, Chafarinas and Vélez de la Gomera. With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 square miles).
Spanish organizations put resources into fields like renewable vitality commercialisation (Iberdrola was the world's biggest renewable vitality administrator), innovation organizations like Telefónica, Abengoa, Mondragon Corporation, Movistar, Hisdesat, Indra, train makers like CAF, Talgo, worldwide partnerships, for example, the material organization Inditex, petroleum organizations like Repsol and foundation, with six of the ten greatest global development firms having some expertise in transport being Spanish, as Ferrovial, Acciona, ACS, OHL and FCC. In the nineteenth and twentieth hundreds of years science in Spain was kept down by extreme political precariousness and subsequent financial underdevelopment. In spite of the conditions, some vital researchers and designers developed. The most striking were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo and Severo Ochoa.
(In Pharmaceutical sciences and Medicine, Spain produced 1 Nobel laureates so far. In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo and Severo Ochoa. Several leading Institution in the country including University of Seville, Complutense University of Madrid, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, University of Barcelona, University of Granada, The University of Almería, The University of Càdiz, The University of Salamanca. Scientific journals produced in Spain include Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology & Drug Research, Pharmacoeconomics Spanish Research Articles.