China is officially known as the People's Republic of China (PRC) and it is the world's most populous state, with a population of over 1.381 billion. China is the world's second largest state by land area. China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second largest economy by nominal total GDP and largest by purchasing power parity. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
Geographically China is the second largest country in the world by land area. China has the longest combined land border in the world. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains; while on the south broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers they are Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur.
In spite of its large population China is the second largest economy in the world. About 344.7 billion USD is spent by China for research and development in year 2014 which is next to USA 473.4 billion USD. Presently China’s economy is market economy and one of the best examples of state capitalism. China with its outstanding advancements in telecommunications, transportation and infrastructure has become world’s fastest growing economy.
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this island nation produced 12 Nobel laureates so far. Tu Youyou is a Chinese pharmaceutical chemist and educator who was awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015. Ei-ichi Negishi Japanese chemist who has spent most of his career at Purdue University in the United States was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for palladium catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis". Numerous Psychiatry journals are published from China with good reputation. Scientific journals produced in the China include Chinese Journal of Psychiatry, Psychiatry in China, Political Psychiatry, etc.