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Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education.
Geographically, its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy.
Canada has the 11th or 15th-largest (PPP) economy in the world, is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Seven (G7). Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector, based in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry being especially important.
In physiology and Medicine, Canada produced 5 Nobel laureates so far. The discovery of INSULIN in 1922 by Frederick BANTING, J.J.R. MACLEOD, Charles BEST and James COLLIP stands as the most in the world. Current Canadian medical research is addressing a number of key health concerns that range from vaccination to surviving cancer. Microbiologists are developing a new meningitis vaccine through innovative genetic research on mouse animal models that could improve the efficacy of vaccination. Because meningitis symptoms progress rapidly a key issue around vaccination is development of a vaccine that can stop the virus before it infects the patient. Oncologists examine the consequences of surviving cancer treatment on patients. Due to the effects of chemotherapy some people are at greater risk of developing other severe health problems such as heart disease, and tailoring survival strategies by following young cancer patients over the long term will help to improve their chances for a healthy life. Sleep researchers are investigating the connection between a sedentary lifestyle, fluid retention and the development of obstructive sleep apnea