Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil is the fifth largest country by both area and population.
Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and occupies 47.3 percent of the continent of South America.
Brazil covers nearly half of South America and is the continent's largest nation. It extends 2,965 mi (4,772 km) north-south, 2,691 mi (4,331 km) east-west, and borders every nation on the continent except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil may be divided into the Brazilian Highlands, or plateau, in the south and the Amazon River Basin in the north. Over a third of Brazil is drained by the Amazon and its more than 200 tributaries. The Amazon is navigable for ocean steamers to Iquitos, Peru, 2,300 mi (3,700 km) upstream. Southern Brazil is drained by the Plata system—the Paraguay, Uruguay, and Paraná rivers.
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's eighth largest economy at market exchange rates and the seventh largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources.
Brazil’s economy is characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and services sectors. Its USD 2 trillion economy is expanding rapidly into world markets, and is also changing structurally. Over the decade to 2008, high-technology manufacturing exports increased at an average annual 16%, faster than total manufacturing exports (13%), a sign of higher competitiveness.
Brazil’s science and technology output mirrors its overall global R&D ranking, with an average of more than 2% of the world output across ten fields of science tabulated by Thomson Reuters. According to analysts Brazil shall spend US$ 33 billion (1.3% of GDP) in R&D in 2014. Brazilian companies’ investment growth in R&D activities is an important step to foster innovation in the country and tax incentives are considered an essential tool in this regard.
Brazil is home to GE’s newest multidisciplinary Research and Development Center, list of Surgery journals Brazil, employing researchers and engineers who are solving the toughest challenges for GE’s customers in Brazil and South America. When fully operational, the Center will employ 400 GE technologists. Different actors, Brazil Surgery journals list are involved in conducting innovation research and development in Brazil. The government, through public universities, technological institutes, list of Surgery journals and agencies that promote research, is the main one. A Rio clinic has performed free procedures on more than 14,000 patients since 1997. Brazil is the world's second biggest consumer of plastic surgery, Surgery journals after the United States.