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Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.According to the World Factbook, 70–75 percent of the population are ethnic Turks, while the Kurds are the largest minority at 18%. Turkey is a nation straddling eastern Europe and western Asia with cultural connections to ancient Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires. Cosmopolitan Istanbul, on the Bosphorus Strait, is home to the iconic Hagia Sophia, with its soaring dome and Christian mosaics, the massive 17th-century Blue Mosque and the circa-1460 Topkap? Palace, former home of sultans. Ankara is Turkey’s modern capital. The vast majority of the population is Sunni Muslim, with Alevis making up the largest religious minority. Turkey is a member of the UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC and the G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949.
Turkey is situated in Anatolia (97%) and the Balkans (3%), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. The geographic coordinates of the country lie at: 39°00′N 35°00′E.Turkey extends more than 1,600 km (994 mi) from west to east but generally less than 800 km (497 mi) from north to south. The total land area is about 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi), of which 756,816 km2 (292,208 sq mi) are in Western Asia (Anatolia) and 23,764 km2 (9,175 sq mi) are in Southeastern Europe (Thrace).The European portion of Turkey, known as Thrace (Turkish: Trakya), encompasses 3% of the total area but is home to more than 10% of the total population. Istanbul, the largest city of Thrace and Turkey, has a population of 11,372,613. Thrace is separated from Anatolia (the Asian portion of Turkey) by the Bosphorus (Turkish: ?stanbul Bo?az?), the Sea of Marmara.
Turkey today combines a highly centralized state with a mixed economy. Since the early 1980s, the Turkish economy has been undergoing a structural transformation, moving away from direct government regulation and control towards greater reliance on market forces. Although Turkish R&D institutions are not very well equipped in comparison with other OECD countries and member countries of the EU, they have a relatively high level of publication activity. Within 50 countries with more than 1,000 publications over a five-year period, Turkey has advanced from 42nd place between 1985 and 1989 to 36th place in the period between 1989-93, leaving Ireland, Hong Kong, Chile, Saudi Arabia and Nigeria behind. Turkish publication productivity in 1994 lifted Turkey to 34th place in a table based on national publication output in the sphere of basic sciences, engineering and health sciences. In terms of the publication rate, behind the ten world leaders of scientific research and publications. Turkey is at a turning point with regard to R&D policy.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on: Over the last decade, Turkey's GDP (gross domestic product) has grown significantly, prompting the government to increase its R&D spending. Turkey increased its research and development expenditure from 0.54 percent of GDP in 2001 to 0.86 percent in 2011, according to the Surgery journals Turkey and Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). In research output, Turkey ranks number 18 of the world's top 20 countries (based on number of articles among list of Surgery journals published between 2006 and 2010) and is already a definitive global competitor. Although it is on the lower end in terms of the number of articles published, it is at the top in terms of the rate of growth – at number 4, behind only China, India and Brazil.The key to increasing the international scientific influence is to increase international collaboration. Although Turkey's growth of research output is increasing rapidly, it has long way to go to be a leader in international collaboration compared to Turkey Surgery journals list and developing countries. The establishment of the surgery journals and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Ara?t?rma Kurumu, TÜB?TAK) is a national agency of Turkey whose stated goal is to develop "science, technology and innovation" (STI) policies, support and conduct research and development with support from list of surgery journals Turkey.