Description of the country:
The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land") a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times. The first time that the name Australia appears to have been officially used was in a dispatch to Lord Bathurst of 4 April 1817 in which Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Matthew Flinders' charts of Australia. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.
Geography of the country:
Australia is a country, and a continent. It is located in Oceania between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean. It is the sixth largest country in the world with a total area of 7,686,850 square kilometers (2,967,910 sq. mi) (including Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island), making it slightly smaller than the 48 states of the contiguous United States and 31.5 times larger than the United Kingdom. Neighboring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and the French dependency of New Caledonia to the east, and New Zealand to the southeast.
Status of economy, research and development:
Western Australia has emerged as a globally connected knowledge economy and particularly science-based economy, though not only research by universities but also our industry, by its very nature; that is, agriculture, mining, resources, marine environment and biodiversity. We are a natural resource-based economy in so many areas and we are heavily dependent on science and leading in science. Western Australia’s universities and research centers collaborate with government, industry and business to conduct innovative research in selected knowledge economy disciplines, such as process and resources engineering, civil engineering, physics and astronomy, law and earth sciences.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
The Australian Resources Research Centre (ARRC), which is a petroleum and minerals center of expertise and an initiative of the Western Australian Government, CSIRO and Curtin University of Technology. With over 300 scientists, the ARRC delivers world-class solutions, services, technologies and people to the resources sector. The National Resource Sciences Precinct is a CSIRO, Curtin University and University of Western Australia (UWA) collaboration, which tackles some of the resources industry’s most complex challenges by connecting the world’s best researchers with industry and government. The National Centre of Excellence in Desalination leads and coordinates the country’s research in desalination technology with the aim of delivering improvements on a commercial scale. Working with 13 Australian universities and the CSIRO, and with support from more than 90 Western Australian Government, water utility and industry sponsors, the center has 50 research projects underway across the country, nine of which are being carried out by Western Australian universities.. Australia has produced 13 Nobel laureates so far. Numerous toxicology journals are published from Australia with good reputation.