Description of the country:
Brazil is largest country in South America and the fifth largest nation in the world. Brazil is neighbor of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. The name of Brazil is derived from Terra do Brasil, means "land of brazilwood".
Geography of the country:
Brazil covers nearly half of South America and is the continent's largest nation. It extends 2,965 mi (4,772 km) north-south, 2,691 mi (4,331 km) east-west, and borders every nation on the continent except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil is divided into the Brazilian Highlands or plateau, in the south and the Amazon River Basin in the north. Brazil is most well-known for its dense forests, including the Amazon that is world's largest forest (jungle) situated in the north. But there are also dry grasslands, rugged hills, pine forests, sprawling wetlands, immense plateaus, and a long coastal plain.
Status of economy, research and development:
According to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's eighth largest economy at market exchange rates and the seventh largest in purchasing power parity (PPP). Brazil’s current GDP (PPP) per capita is $15,153 in 2014. Brazil has different soils and climates that help producing a great variety of crops. Its agricultural exports include sugarcane, latex, coffee, cocoa beans, cotton, soybeans, rice, and tropical fruits. Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
In Toxicology, Medicine and Chemistry, Brazil produced 1 Nobel laureates so far. Brazil has established infrastructure for advanced medical and toxicology research. Hispanic Organization of Toxicologists monitors the funding and integration of the R & D related to toxicology in the country. The State University of Campinas in Brazil is the leading Institution in medical research in Japan. Numerous toxicology journals are published from Brazil with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and others are spearheading the medical research.