Description of the country:
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million sq. uare kilometers (3.85 million sq. uare miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of its land territory has been dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains; about four-fifths of the country's population of 35 million people lives near the southern border. The majority of Canada has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
Geography of the country:
The geography of Canada describes the geographic features of Canada, the world's second largest country in total area. It is covering 9,984,670 km2 or 3,855,100 sq. mi, Canada is slightly less than three-fifths as large as Russia and slightly smaller than Europe. In total area, Canada is slightly larger than both the US and China; however, Canada ranks fourth in land area. Canada is situated in northern North America; Canada spans a vast, diverse territory between the North Pacific Ocean to the west and the North Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north, with the United States to the south and northwest. Greenland is to the northeast; off the southern coast of Newfoundland lays Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France.
Status of economy, research and development:
Canada has the 11th (nominal) or 15th-largest (PPP) economy in the world (measured in US dollars at market exchange rates), is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and Group of Seven. As with other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector, based in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry being especially important. With a long coastline, Canada has the 8th largest commercial fishing and seafood industry in the world. Canada is one of the global leaders of the entertainment software industry.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
According to a 2012 report by the “Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development” (OECD), Canada is the most educated country in the world; the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. Canada spends about 5.3% of its GDP on education. The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than 20 000 USD per student). As of 2014, 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent. Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada. Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision. The mandatory school age ranges between 5-7 or 16-18 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent. Canada has produced 25 Nobel laureates so far. Numerous toxicology journals are published from Canada with good reputation.