Description of the country:
China, officially known as the People's Republic of China, it is a sovereign state in Asia. The People's Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities known as Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing, and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions; Hong Kong and Macau, and claims sovereignty over the Republic of China; island of Taiwan off the southeast coast of the mainland.
Geography of the country:
China is covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world's second largest state by land area, and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities known as Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing, and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions; Hong Kong and Macau, and claims sovereignty over the Republic of China; island of Taiwan off the southeast coast of the mainland.
Status of economy, research and development:
Peoples Republic of China is the world's second-largest economy by nominal total GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The PRC has been a United Nations member since 1971, when it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G-20. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
China was a world leader in science and technology until the Ming Dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder, later became widespread in Asia and Europe. However, by the 17th century, the Western world had surpassed China in scientific and technological development. In 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations, and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research, with $163 billion spent on scientific research and development in 2012. China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, producing 121,500 in 2010 alone, including 5,200 in leading international scientific journals. Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the worlds most powerful. There are many universities were encouraging the medicine and Natural products and toxicology studies in china, Shanghai-Hong Kong Development Institute and CUHK-Zhejiang University Joint Laboratory on Natural Products and Toxicology Research one of them. Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine once respectively, though most of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in western nations. China has produced 11 Nobel laureates so far. Numerous toxicology journals are published from China with good reputation.