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Description of the country:
India is a vast South Asian country with diverse terrain – from Himalayan peaks to Indian Ocean coastline. It is the seventh-largest country by area and the second-most populous country. The name “India” arises from the Indus River which is a major river flowing through Pakistan, China, India and the surrounding region.
Geography of the country:
India lies on the Indian Plate which is a northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. The country covers an area of about 3.28 million square km. The mainland of India extends between 8°4' and 37°6' N latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' E longitude. Indian peninsula attenuates southward resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two water bodies - the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. In India, there is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains, and a number of islands.
Status of economy, research and development:
According to world nominal GDP, India is having seventh-largest economy and third-largest as per purchasing power parity (PPP). According to UNCTAD’s World Investment Report 2015, India is ranked third among most prospective host economy for 2015-17 in the world. India holds about 10% of all the expenditure on research and development in Asia. The Dept. of Science and Technology plays an important role in the promotion of science and technology in the country. After India’s independence in 1947, the Government of India has spared no effort to establish a modern S&T infrastructure in the country. The country is pioneer in advanced research in computer science, electronics, biomedical/biotechnology, civil and medical sciences.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, India has produced 12 Nobel laureates so far. India has established infrastructure for advanced toxicology research. The Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR), Lucknow is the leading Institution in toxicology research in India. Numerous toxicology journals are published from India with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology, Central Drug Research Institute, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research and Food & Drug Toxicology Research Centre are leading the toxicology research.