Description of the country:
Spain is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Spanish territory includes two archipelagos: the Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast.
Geography of the country:
Spain occupies 85% of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with Portugal, in southwest Europe. Africa is less than 10 mi (16 km) south at the Strait of Gibraltar. A broad central plateau slopes to the south and east, crossed by a series of mountain ranges and river valleys. Principal rivers are the Ebro in the northeast, the Tajo in the central region, and the Guadalquivir in the south. Off Spain's east coast in the Mediterranean are the Balearic Islands (5,014 sq km), the largest of which is Majorca. 97 km west of Africa are the Canary Islands (7,273 sq km). Extending to 1,214 km, the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union.
Status of economy, research and development:
Spain has the fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP in the world and sixteenth-largest by purchasing power parity. Spain is a member of the European Union. The Spanish economy is the fifth-largest in the European Union, and the fourth-largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP statistics. Despite the poor performance of the Spanish economy generally in the 2008-2013 periods, a number of structural adjustments have enhanced prospects for recovery. The country is pioneer in advanced research in natural sources, biology and biomedicine, agricultural sciences, material science and technology, food science and technology. The Spanish National Research Council is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.
Status about the toxicology in which extensive research is going on:
There are 7 Noble Laureates in Spain the fields of Literature and Medicine. The Master's Programme in Toxicology was one of the first toxicology programmes in the world that is held in Karolinska Institute. Dr. José M. Navas is Director of the Department of Environment at the Spanish National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology. Dr. Navas has a wide expertise in fish physiology research and in the use of fish cells and fish cell lines as a tool to study mechanisms of specific toxicity of chemicals. Dr. Bernardo Herradón is Researcher and Director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry (Spanish National Research Council). His interests include the broad area of chemistry and related fields, ranging from organic synthesis to computational toxicology.