Officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España) is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in south-western Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and near the north African coast. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. Mount Teide (Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base.Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and rographic conditions: The Mediterranean climate, the semi-arid climate, the oceanic climate. Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate in the Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada, and a typical desert climate in the zone of Almería and in most parts of the Canary Islands; while in higher areas of the Canary Islands the predominant climate is subtropical.
Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 16th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the European Union, as well as the Eurozone's 4th largest. The centre-right government of former Prime Minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 7.6% in October 2006, a rate that compared favourably to many other European countries, and especially with the early 1990s when it stood at over 20%. Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include high inflation, a large underground economy, and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK.
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo and Severo Ochoa. Many Scientific Journals are running from Spain resulting lists of Anesthesiology Journals and similar Jornals lists.