Germany officially the Federal Republic of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic in West-Central Europe. Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918. On 11 August 1919 President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution. In the subsequent struggle for power, the radical-left Communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements in other parts of Germany attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Germany is a great power and has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the fifth-largest by PPP.
It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Berlin. With about 81.5 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular migration destination in the world.
Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP (PPP). Germany is rich in timber, iron ore, potash, salt, uranium, nickel, copper and natural gas. Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels (50%), followed by nuclear power second, then gas, wind, biomass (wood and biofuels), hydro and solar. It consists of various Journals list like Chemistry journals Germany, Germany Chemistry journals list, Chemistry journals Germany, list of Chemistry journals, Chemistry journals. Germany is the first major industrialized nation to commit to the renewable energy transition called Energiewende. Germany is the leading producer of wind turbines in the world. Renewables now produce over 27% of electricity consumed in Germany. Germany is the world's top location for trade fairs. Around two thirds of the world's leading trade fairs take place in Germany.
The Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 92 Nobel laureates so far. Several leading Institution in the country including Technische Universität München, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Kit, Karlsruher Institut Für Technologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Universität Freiburg.