The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, the federal district of Washington, D.C., five major territories, and various possessions. The 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific.
The term "United States", when used in the geographical sense, is the contiguous United States, the state of Alaska, the island state of Hawaii, the five insular territories of Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa, and minor outlying possessions. The country is the world's third largest by total area.
The United States has a capitalist mixed economy which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity. According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP).
In the list of chemistry journals there were many research institutes in USA few of the institutes names are The Scripps Research Institute, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, MIT Department of chemistry. In United States chemistry journal’s list are department of chemistry journal, journal of reports in organic chemistry, journal of chemistry & applied biochemistry, organic chemistry journals United States. The United States has been a leader in scientific research and technological innovation since the late 19th century. In the 21st century, 64% of research and development funding comes from the private sector. In the list of chemistry journals United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor. Total no. of Nobel laureates individuals are 357. As of 2015, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 103 individuals and 23 organizations.