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Description of the country: Japan is an Asian country which is in the Asia Pacific region and a neighbor of P.R. China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. Japan is a fascinating country of economic and business prowess, rich culture, technical wizardry, spatial conundrums and contradictions. Japan held onto the title of the world?s second largest economy for more than 40 years from 1968 to 2010. Total area of Japan is 145,920 sq. miles (377,930 sq. km, 61st largest country by total land area, one ahead of Germany (137,882 sq. miles) and slightly smaller than California (163,696 sq. miles).
Geography of the country: Japan has a total of 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of East Asia. Its total area ranked 61 out of 233 countries. The main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. Together they are often known as the Japanese archipelago. The islands of Japan are located in a volcanic zone on the Pacific Ring of Fire. About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. Japan has 108 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century. Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes and tsunami, having the highest natural disaster risk in the developed world.
Status of economy, research and development: The economy of Japan is the third-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) and is the world's second largest developed economy (World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016, ranked 6 out of 125 countries). Japan is a member of the G7. The Japanese economy is forecasted by the Quarterly Tankan survey of business sentiment conducted by the Bank of Japan. Japan is estimated to have a GDP per capita of around $38,490. Japan is the world's third largest automobile manufacturing country, has the largest electronics goods industry, and is often ranked among the world's most innovative countries leading several measures of global patent filings. Japan is the world's largest creditor nation as well as having the highest debt per GDP. The country is pioneer in advanced research in electronics, machinery, biomedical devices, computer science, robotics and medical sciences.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on: Japan produced 21 Nobel laureates so far, (eleven have been physicists, seven chemists, two for literature, three for physiology or medicine and one for efforts towards peace). Satoshi ?mura is widely recognized as a global expert world in the field of Bioorganic Chemistry, particularly for the discovery, development, biosynthesis and manipulation of useful chemicals derived from naturally-occurring microorganisms. Hiroshi Itoh, is the President of ?The Japan Endocrine Society?. In the 21st century, in the field of natural science, the number of Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize has been second behind the U.S. The top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo (ranked 30 in the world, 1 in Asia), Kyoto University (ranked 52 in the world, 5 in Asia), Osaka University, Japan Science and Technology Agency. The Institute of Medical Science in Tokyo is the leading Institution in medical research in Japan. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development monitors the funding and integration of the R & D related to medical sciences in the country. According to the report by Rehman et al., 2002, Japan is ranked number 2 preceded by U.S.A in publishing highest number of articles in nuclear medicine. Japan promotes free access to 4,832 medical journals. Japan Endocrinology journals list includes Endocrine Journal, Folia endocrinologica Japonica etc.