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Mexico, officially the United Mexican States is a federal republic located in North America. Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million, and it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, its capital and largest city.
Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Mexico is about one-fifth the size of the United States. Baja California in the west is an 800-mile (1,287-km) peninsula that forms the Gulf of California. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands beyond.
Mexico is also considered the second country in the world in ecosystems and fourth in overall species. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. The climate of Mexico is highly varied. The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund.
Due to continuing foreign direct investment (FDI) and legislative support for the R&D industry, research and development revenue grows by 12% in 2013. Research in natural sciences and engineering accounts for 67% of revenue in the industry in 2013, and grows by 12%. The number of employees in the industry grows by 14% in 2013, highlighting the growing demand for skilled labour. The research and development industry is dominated by micro and small service providers.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in 1910, and the university become one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico. UNAM provides world class education in food science, medicine, and engineering. Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936), were established during the first half of the 20th century. Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973. In 1959, the Mexican Academy of Sciences was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics others like Food Science journals are spearheading the Food science research.