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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula. It occupies an area about the size of the United States east of the Mississippi River. Saudi Arabia’s population is 27 million, including 8.4 million foreign residents (2010 census) and its capital city is Riyadh.
Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, with the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba to the west and the Persian Gulf to the east. Neighboring countries are Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, the Sultanate of Oman, Yemen, and Bahrain, connected to the Saudi mainland by a causeway. Saudi Arabia contains the world's largest continuous sand desert, the Rub Al-Khali, or Empty Quarter. Its oil region lies primarily in the eastern province along the Persian Gulf.
Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman announced in an interview on 1 April that the country is ready to sell less than 5.0% of state-owned oil company Aramco. Aramco is the world’s largest oil company and, once listed, it could be worth more than USD 2.5 trillion. The remaining shares would be transferred to the Public Investment Fund, thus becoming the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund. With this move, the government is intending to prepare the country for the end of the oil era. Meanwhile, major oil-producing nations will meet on 17 April in Doha in an attempt to reach an agreement to stabilize oil prices. While a freeze in output at January’s level is on the cards, analysts warn that Iran’s refusal to participate in the deal has the potential to jeopardize any pact.
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this island nation produced 21 Nobel laureates so far. Saudi has established infrastructure for advanced food research. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology and Development monitor the funding and integration of the R & D related to food sciences in the country. The Institute of food Science is the leading Institution in food research in Saudi Arabia. According to the reports, Saudi Arabia is ranked number 2 preceded by U.S.A in publishing highest number of articles in nuclear medicine. Numerous food sciences journals are published from Saudi Arabia with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Science and Technology Agency, Natural Resources & Environment Research Institute and University of Hail Hail.