Australia known as the Commonwealth of Australia. Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. Australia country is known for its Sydney Opera House, Great Barrier Reef, the vast Outback (interior desert wilderness) and unique animal species including kangaroos and duck-billed platypuses. The major cities in Australia are Sydney, New South Wales, Melbourne, Victoria, Brisbane, Queensland, Perth, and Western Australia.
The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests. Australia is the lowest, flattest, and oldest continental landmass on Earth and it has had a relatively stable geological history. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate: part is tropical rainforests, part grasslands, and part desert.
The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed market economies in the world, with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of AUD $1.62 trillion as of 2015. Australia's total wealth is AUD $6.4 trillion. The Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 68% of GDP. Australia is the 52nd most populous country in the world. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is expected to exceed 28 million by 2030. The Australian Gastrointestinal Research Alliance (AGIRA), led by Laureate Professor Nick Talley and Professors Marjorie Walker (Newcastle) and Gerald Holtmann (Brisbane) is a coalition of researchers in gastrointestinal (GI) disease who have expertise in clinical medicine and gastroenterology, mucosal immunology, translational science, pathology, imaging, psychology, and epidemiology in aspects of GI disease in Australia. Diseases of the digestive system accounted for 4,939 registered deaths in Australia in 2008/3.4% of all registered deaths. The number and proportion of all deaths due to diseases of the digestive system have remained consistent since 1999. Slightly more females (2,510) than males (2,429) died from diseases of the digestive system in 2008. The median age at death for males (74.2 years) dying from these diseases was 10 years lower than for females (84.2 years).
National Health and Medical Research Council monitors the funding and integration of the R & D related to medical sciences in the country. And also supporting health and medical research, developing health advice for the Australian community, health professionals and governments, providing advice on ethical behaviour in health care and in the conduct of health and medical research. WHO collaborating centres are institutions such as research institutes, parts of universities or academies, which are designated by the Director-General to carry out activities in support of the Organization's programmes. The Garvan Institute of Medical Research is one of Australia’s leading biomedical research institutes, pioneering study into the most widespread diseases affecting our community today, including cancer, neurodegenerative and mental diseases, disorders of the immune system, diabetes and obesity, osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders. The Australian Research Council (ARC) plays a key role in the Australian Government's investment in the future prosperity and well-being of the Australian community. ARC's mission is to advance Australia's capacity to undertake quality research that brings economic, social and cultural benefit to the Australian community. The Australian Government's Department of Health and Aging aims to provide better health and healthier ageing for all Australians through a world-class health system. One focus of the Department is radiation oncology and radiotherapy. Several leading Institution in the country are working on Gastroenterology, some of them are-The Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA) and The Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Groups (APEG), Australian Medical Association. Numerous Gastroenterology journals are also published from Autralia with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including University of melborn, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Monash University, University of Queensland, and others are leading the researches this field.