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Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in West-Central Europe. Germany now consists of 16 federal states. It upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection and a tuition-free university education.
Germany covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres. It is 876 kilometres from its northernmost tip to the southernmost point as the crow flies, and 640 kilometres from east to west. Germany's longest river is the Rhine, which flows through the country for a total of 865 kilometres. Germany has 16 national parks, 104 nature reserves and 15 biosphere reserves.
Germany is one of the top three nations in research and development of high tech products, and the second among world leaders in both wind and solar power production. Germany has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific disciplines, notably physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Research and development (R&D) are the cornerstones of the future of the German economy. Generous public funding programs contribute to the excellent conditions allowing companies from all over the world to carry out their R&D in Germany: setting the stage for international high-tech products "made in Germany." The public and private sectors have made a significant commitment to spend around three percent of national GDP per year on R&D activity. This amounts to approximately EUR 70 billion R&D spending annually. On an average Endocrinology receiving funding of USD 5,34,758 every year.
Germany is one of top five countries with the most Nobel laureates for the best minds in peace, literature, science and economics. In Physiology or Medicine, Germany produced 24 Nobel laureates so far. Germany places great emphasis on globally networked research cooperation. The largest organisations that award financial support to individuals are the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). Endoscopic Section of the German Society of Gastroenterology is one of the biggest societies in the extensive research fields of Gastroenterology providing guidance in clinical care, education, training, research, patient advocacy, information dissemination and capacity building, within and outside Germany. Germany is 4th country in publishing the highest number of articles per year. Numerous Gastroenterology journals are published from Germany with good reputation. Among the list of Gastroenterology journals, German Journal of Gastroenterology, Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases are major research journal from Germany. Many Gastroenterology journals of Germany are publishing innovative research work in the field of Gastroenterology.