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Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. According to the World Factbook, 70–75 percent of the population are ethnic Turks, while the Kurds are the largest minority at 18%.The vast majority of the population is Sunni Muslim, with Alevis making up the largest religious minority. Turkey is a member of the UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC and the G-20.
Turkey is divided into seven census regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.
Turkey has undergone a profound economic transformation over the last decade and its economic fundamentals are quite solid. Currently it is the 17th largest economy in the world and the 6th largest economy in Europe with a GDP of approximately USD 800 billion in 2014.
In Chemistry and Literature, Turkey produced 2 Nobel laureates so far. Several leading Institution in the country including Hacettepe University, TUBITAK, Technology and others are spearheading the Medical research in the field of Gasteroenterology. TUBITAK the Scientific & Technological Research Council of Turkey, is the leading governmental R&D organization having high-level institutes making research covering a wide range of S&T fields, i.e information and communication technologies, security, energy, genetics and biomolecular engineering, food and life sciences, materials, earth and marine sciences, chemistry, textile and metrology. Eminent editor like Gokhan Baysoy from Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hacettepe University, are working in the field of Gasteroenterology. Numerous Gasteroenterology Journals are published from Turkey with good reputation.