alexa Haematological Studies on Broiler Chickens Fed with Different Levels of Artemia Urmiana | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-952X
Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Haematological Studies on Broiler Chickens Fed with Different Levels of Artemia Urmiana

Aliasghar Tehrani1, Javad Javanbakht2*, Saeed Askari3, Mehdy Aghamohammad Hassan4, Amirali Solati5, Sayad Golami6 and Hamid Akbari7

1Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran

2Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3GraduateSchool of Veterinary Medicine, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran

4Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5Department of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Saveh branch, Saveh, Iran

6Graduate, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

7Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Javad Javanbakht
Department of Pathology
University of Tehran, Azadi Avenue, Iran
Tel: +989372512581
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 26, 2012; Accepted date: June 05, 2012; Published date: June 07, 2012

Citation: Tehrani A, Javanbakht J, Askari S, Hassan MA, Solati A, et al. (2012) Haematological Studies on Broiler Chickens Fed with Different Levels of Artemia urmiana. J Biotechnol Biomater 2:138. doi:10.4172/2155-952X.1000138

Copyright: © 2012 Tehrani A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials

Abstract

The present study was carried out on broilers to study the effect of Artemia Urmiana on hematological parameters for a period of 56 days (8 weeks). In this study 190 one-day old broiler chicks from Ross 308 strain were divided into five equal groups: L1, L2, L3, L4 (Test groups) and control group. The control diet contained 5% fish meal, and the other four groups contained 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% brine shrimp. At the end of the 7th day, blood samples were collected from all the experimental groups and analyzed for the following parameters: RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC. The blood sample collection was repeated at the end of 14th, 21th, 28th, 35th, 42th, 49th, 56th days respectively, and the blood parameters determined as well. The results demonstrated that in Artemia-fed groups the PCV, MCV, MCH, Lymphocytes and TP were more than control group, whereas Leukocytes and Heterophils were lesser than control group. However, RBC, Hb and MCHC were approximately equal to control group.

Keywords

Artemia; Blood; Parameters; Broiler; Fish meal

Introduction

Artemia or Brine shrimp is a crustacean animal, lives in over 500 tropical and subtropical regions in the World [1], and has two species as Artemia urmiana (UA) and Parthenogenetica Artemia (PA) in Iran. Such animal was reported by Gunter in 1899 [2] for the first time and named Artemia urmiana by Clark and Bowen in 1976 [3]. All stages of Artemia from cysts and newly hatched nauplii to adult Artemia are utilized as food sources in aquaculture; however, there are scarce researches regarding the Artemia usage in poultry nutrition. In study by Zareia used Artemia meal (biomass) as a substitute for fish meal in broiler diet. Some studies approved that Artemia meal could be used as a feed ingredient in poultry nutrition [4-8]. The amino acid content of Artemia has been specified in different regions [9]. Thus, the Artemia is rich of amino acids which are efficient for broiler chick diet due to high digestibility, fatty acids and amino acids compared to fish meal although it varies in every region [10,11]. Commonly, Haematological parameters measurement provides valuable information in human and animal medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of information of such parameters, blood profile is not used widely in avian medicine [12,13]. Although there is limited information in this field, evaluation of blood profiles of broiler strains have been assessed by several studies [14-17]. Talebi et al. [18] demonstrated that a significant increase of RBC and Leukocytic parameters was observable and haematological profile in broiler chicks (except heterophils and H / L ratio). Islam et al. [19] illustrated that the amount of RBC, Hb and PCV rise along with animal growth in three studied races. Nirmalan and Robinson [20] found the amount of lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, eosinophils and basophiles in poultries and quails at various ages, and demonstrated that through age increase, amount of all mentioned parameters except heterophils will be increased. Several other studies have been conducted on haematological parameters in poultries such as [21-25] and etc. The aim of present study is to evaluate haematological parameters in broiler chicks fed by diet containing AU.

Materials and Methods

Chickens design

In the experiment 190 one-day old broiler chicks from 308 Ross strain evaluated, provided from Urmia Chakavak institution (one-day chick producer unit), were purchased in February 2011. These chickens transferred to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University and after six or seven days, the chicks were divided into five groups randomly (40 chicks in each experimental group and 30 chicks in the control group in 19 pens, each pen containing 10 chicks, L1, L2, L3, L4 (four experimental Groups and one control group). Furthermore, chicks were located in a standard single cages wire, with same environmental conditions for eight weeks, and received vaccines in the experimental period. During the eight weeks blood samples, including 1 ml of blood in vials with 2 mg ethylene-diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were collected for haematological tests from the jugular and brachial veins [26,27].

Food ration plan

1-Starter stage 2-Grower stage 3-Finisher stage (Tables 1, 2 and 3)

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day    Group
11.8 ± 0.14 11.7 ± 0.21 10.6 ± 0.96 11.1 ± 0.63 10.2±1.55 11±0.70 9.8± 0.14 9.6 ± 1.13 C
11.8 ± 0.14 11.7 ± 0.21 11.8 ± 0.14
11.2 ± 0.56
10.1 ± 0.07 10.2 ± 1.55   9.4 ± 0.98 9.4 ± 0.98 L1
11.6 ± 0.28 11.5 ± 0.35 11.4 ± 0.42 11.1 ± 0.63 10.4 ± 3.11 10.4 ± 3.11 10.2 ± 1.55   9.6 ± 1.13 L2
13.4 ± 1.13 13.4 ± 1.13 13.6 ± 0.98 11.7 ± 0.21 13.4 ± 1.13 12.2 ± 0.14 11.4 ± 0.42 9.8 ± 0.14 L3
12.5 ± 1.06 12.3 ± 1.20 12.3 ± 1.20 12.1 ± 1.48 11.5 ± 0.35 10.1 ± 1.34 9.6 ± 1.13 9.2 ± 0.56 L4

Table 1: Hemoglobin levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day  Group
34.7± 0.91 43.6 ± 0.98 34 ± 1.41 33 ± 2.12 32.1 ± 0.07 31.3 ± 0.91 31.3 ± 0.91 30 ± 1.41 C
35.3 ± 1.90 35.2 ± 1.97 35.3 ± 1.90 35.2± 1.97 34.8 ± 0.84 32.6 ± 0.42 30.8 ± 1.97 29.3 ± 2.33 L1
33.7 ± 0.21 33.7 ± 0.21 33.4 ± 0.42 32.5 ± 0.35 32.5 ± 0.35 32.3 ± 0.21 32.3± 0.21 29.6 ± 2.54 L2
34.7 ± 0.91 34.5 ± 7 34.3 ± 8.14 34.1" ± 1.34 34.1 ± 1.34 33.8 ± 0.14 33.2 ± 0.56 31.2 ± 0.84 L3
34.8 ± 0.84 34.6 ± 0.98 34.6 ± 0.98 34.3 ± 1.20 34.3 ± 1.20 34 ± 4.24 30.7 ± 1.90 28.8 ± 3.39 L4

Table 2: Hematocrit levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (%).

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
3 ± 0.70 3±0.70 2.7±0.49 2.7±0.49 2.7±0.49 2.4±0.28 2.2±0.14 2.1± 0.07 C
3.3 ± 0.49 2.7 ± 0.49 2.7 ± 0.49 2.5 ± 0.35 2.5± 0.35 2.4 ± 0.28 2.2 ± 0.14 2.1 ± 0.07 L1
2.6 ± 0.42 2.8 ± 0.56 2.8± 0.56 2.4 ± 0.28 2.6 ± 0.42 2.4 ± 0.28 2.4 ± 0.28 2.2 ± 0.14 L2
2.8 ± 0.56 2.6 ± 0.42 2.6 ± 0.42 2.6 ± 0.42 2.5 ± 0.35 2.4 ± 0.28 2.4 ± 0.28 2.1 ± 0.07 L3
3.2 ± 0.56 2.7 ± 0.49 2.6 ± 0.42 2.4 ± 0.28 2.3 ± 0.21 2.1 ± 0.07 2.1± 0.07 2 ± 0 L4

Table 3: The number of red blood cells in experimental and control groups

sort of Artemia meal as Urmia Lake Artemia Meal (ULAM) was replaced with fish meal proteins, in experimental groups, in 4 levels of protein (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% respectively). The experiment was performed during 8 weeks, somehow traits relating to broiler performances measured and analyzed (Haematological parameters). Additionally, standard broiler diets had 5 percent fish meal, hence the protein amount of such fish meal were counted (Control group), and different levels of Artemia protein in one kind of Artemia including 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 percent replaced with fish meal protein (Experimental groups). In each stage (1, 2, 3) 5 types of rationing were recorded through mentioned percentages of Artemia, and each stage elongated up to 16 days. In the first week of starter stage, the chicks consumed a usual diet without Artemia, whereas in the second week of this stage added Artemia to poultry diet. The biomass harvesting methods of Artemia urmiana was originated from by technique sorgeloos [28].

Feeding method

Obviously, sugar, powered milk, multivitamin and water were fed to chickens for the first 1-2 days. Subsequently, corn meal and water fed to the chickens solely until through one-week age. The starter rations served to L1, L2, L3, L4 and control groups after 7th day. In addition, food rations were changed in each stage, and in 6th day they divided into 19 pens. The first 4 cages named as L1 group, the second 4 cages as L2 group, the third 4 cages as L3 group, the fourth 4 cages as L4 group, and finally 3 cages as control group. Furthermore, 2.5% Artemia was added to the first group (L1), 5% Artemia to the second group (L2), 7.5% Artemia to the third group (L3), 10% Artemia to the fourth group and 0% Artemia to control group. Moreover, multivitamin powder and amino acids were prepared again and fed during breeding period, in 20th days, and the other fed in 39th days which contained vitamin A, D3, E, B2, B6, C, K3, Nicotinamide, pantothenate, and amino acids: L_Methionine, L_Cysteine and L_Lysine.

Vaccination

Two vaccines were used during this period:

1. Infectious bronchitis virus H120 vaccine strain was administered in 5th day, somehow 5 cc distilled water added to vaccine vial firstly, and 0.5 cc of prepared solution dissolved in 800cc drinking water, and the chickens were allowed to drink it upon 0.5 hours thirst.

2. Newcastle vaccine with LaSota strain (Italian oil) which was injected by automatic needle in 13th days, 0.5 cc per chicken subcutaneously to the right side of the sternum, by vaccinators.

Sampling procedures: The sampling procedure has been started since 14th day and 7th day of experimental period and feeding with Artemia respectively. Blood samples were collected in an EDTA anticoagulant in 7th day, from jugular veins using 1 ml EDTA syringe with 25 gauge needles, and repeated every 7 days.

Haematological tests: Haematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, ESR, Total Protein, together with absolute count of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils as well as H/L ratio were determined by routine methods [29,30].

Statistical analysis: In order to analyzing data the Duncan test and SAS/STAT program were utilized for each haematological parameter between groups [31].

Results

The results demonstrated some haematological parameters such as Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, leukocytes, lymphocytes and total protein increased, whereas the heterophils decreased in each group. Furthermore, in Artemia-fed group PCV, MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, total protein were more than control group; however, leukocytes and heterophils were lesser than control group, and RBC, Hb, MCH were roughly equal to control group.

Importance of Artemia in poultry nutrition

Various forms of Artemia such as decapsulated cysts, newly hatched nauplii, metanauplii and juvenile and adult, Frozen and freeze – dried Artemia, are commonly utilized for newly hatched shrimps, sturgeons, trouts, aquarium fishes and some crustaceans. The Artemia biomass is a suitable protein resource for other animals such as poultry, containing diverse stages of Artemia growth. The Artemia meal because of it has high levels of protein and high protein digestibility can be used as a feedstuff in poultry and other farm animal’s diets. Compared with other animal proteins, Artemia does not contain any feather, bone, hair or gastrointestinal tract components. In addition, in Artemia production there is no requirement for high pressure and high temperature treatments which can influence protein quality. Artificial culture of Artemia is easy and is possible everywhere [8]. Feeding role in compositions which form body is very important. As geographical situations in Iran, due to its hot and dry climatic conditions, desert regions, salt intakes and having one of the largest salt lake in the world (Urmia Lake), has a immense potential in the field of Artemia [10,32]. It is possible to convert Artemia to larvae during 24 hours. In addition, analysis showed that has a high food convertibility (more than 40%) and its dry element has six fold protein more than normal situation [10,32,33]. Matured Artemia meal has high amount of amino acid and essential fatty acids also has an excellence effect on blood parameters of birds as well as Artemia has good and high effects on poultry growth and other Artemia meal does not have fish meal shortcomings (such as smell, flavor), and it can be a suitable alternative for poultry growth from the viewpoint of protein and fatty acids [10,28,32]. Haematological values of poultry are influenced by egg, sex, bread, climate, geographical location, season, day length, and times of day, nutritional status, life habit of species, and such other physiological factors [18]. Taseer Ahmed khan and Farhat Zafar in a study showed there is not any significant difference in the field of comparing HB, ESR, and RBC in 40 & 50 days broiler chicks [34]. In the Interpretation of (table 1 and figure 1) A_ it was shown that average amount of HB in groups which were fed by Artemia was more or approximately equal to control group. B_ L3 group has maximum amount of hemoglobin average. C_ Control groups as L1 and L2 has equal amounts of HB during breeding period. D-adding Artemia to broiler poultry rationing results in raising of average amount of Hb, therefore the average amount of Hb in all of the groups which were fed by Artemia and in control group during breeding period would be an ascending process. Table 2 and figure 2 A_ groups which were fed by Artemia have higher level of PCV rather than control group. B_ PCV amount during breeding period in all of the groups has an ascending process and adding them to poultry rationing result in rising of PCV amount in that groups which were fed by Artemia rather than control group and this rising in L1, L3, and L4 groups is considerable. Table 3 and figure 3 Shows that average amount of RBC had an ascending process during breeding period in all of the groups and its amount in groups which were fed by Artemia and control group is approximately equal. Table 4 and figure 4 showed that the amount of MCV in that groups which fed by Artemia has had an ascending process rather than control group and this amount during breeding period has had an ascending process in all of these 5 groups. Table 5 and figure 5 showed that average amount of MCH in that groups which were fed by Artemia is more rather than control group and average amount of MCH has had an ascending process by increasing the amount of Artemia in rationing and has the most amount rather than L4 group. The amounts of MCV and MCH are related together and the amount of MCH in all of the groups has had an ascending process. Table 6 and figure 6 showed that the average amount of MCHC in control group and in groups which were fed with Artemia is approximately equal and the amount of MCHC in all of these groups has had an ascending process. Table 7 and figure 7 showed that the average amount of WBC in control group was more than those groups which were fed by Artemia, the amount of WBC has had an ascending process in all of the groups. WBC maximum amount is in control group and WBC minimum amount is in group L4. Table 8 and figure 8 showed that average amount of heterophils in control group was more than this amount in those groups which were fed by Artemia and a heteropenia process is seen in all of the groups during breeding period. Table 9 and figure 9 showed that the average amount of blood lymphocytes those groups which were fed by Artemia is more than this average amount in control group and a lymphocytosis process is seen in breeding period in all of the groups. Table 10 and figure 10 showed that the average amount of total protein in those groups which were fed by Artemia was more than control group and during breeding process has had an ascending process in all of these groups. Group L4 has the maximum amount of total protein and control group has the minimum amount of total protein. In the interpretation of total results of these investigations, during breeding period we have observed rising in blood parameters such as HB, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC,WBC, Lymphocytes, total protein and decreasing in heterophiles in all of the groups . In those groups which were fed by Artemia, the amount of PCV, MCV, MCH, Lymphocytes and total proteins was more than control group and the amount of Leukocytes (WBC), heterophiles was less than control group and the amount of RBC, HB, MCHC was approximately equal to control group. Results show that blood parameters were not affected by feeding with Artemia powder very much. Furthermore, in -fed group PCV, MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, total protein were more than control group; however, leukocytes and heterophils were lesser than control group, and RBC, Hb, MCH were roughly equal to control group. Finally it is notable to say that this is the first time that haematological investigations in the field of feeding rationing containing Artemia have been done.

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
142.7 ± 16.05 142.1 ± 15.27 135.7 ± 11.10 121.6 ± 1.13 105.6 ± 3.95 102.8 ± 1.97 93.2 ± 4.80 90.7 ± 6.57 C
131.5 ± 8.13 126.3 ± 4.45 123.6 ± 2.54 120.8 ± 0.56 118.2 ± 1.27 113.3 ± 5.16 103.2 ± 2.26 101.3 ± 0.91 L1
140.8 ± 14.70 131.6 ± 8.20 125.3 ± 3.74 120.6 ± 0.42 115.6 ± 3.11 112 ± 5.65 105.1 ± 2.89 102.3 ± 1.62 L2
174.7 ± 24.53 164.2 ± 17.11 152.5 ± 16.23 142.3 ± 15.98 132.5 ± 8.83 122 ± 1.41 114.1 ± 4.31 104.2 ± 2.96 L3
175.3 ± 24.96 164.2 ± 17.11 155.5 ± 16.52 145.6 ± 18.10 135.3 ± 10.81 125 ± 3.53 114 ± 4.27 96.2 ± 2.68 L4

Table 4: MCV levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (FL).

56 46 42 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
47.5 ± 7.412 45.6 ± 6.64 43.1 ± 4.87 43.1 ± 4.87 40.3 ± 2.61 36.1 ± 0.07 33.7 ± 3.25 29 ± 2.61 26.6 ± 1.41 C
48.2 ± 7.62 45.8 ± 6.79 43.2 ± 4.92 43.2 ± 4.92 38 ± 2.46 36.2 ± 0.11 34 ± 2.25 31.5 ± 1.37 30.3 ± 1.31 L1
46.2 ± 6.24 47.1 ± 7.83 44.8 ± 5.95 44.8 ± 5.95 43.5 ± 5.01 40.5 ± 2.83 37 ± 2.12 34.3 ± 2.37 30 ± 0 L2
55 ± 10.60 52.6 ± 8.17 50 ± 0 50 ± 0 45.2 ± 6.25 41.8 ± 2.98 38.1 ± 2.01 35.5 ± 2.27 31.7 ± 1.48 L3
55.8 ± 10.81 55.7 ± 10.73 52.7 ± 8.316 52.7 ± 8.316 47.1 ± 7.83 42.7 ± 4.19 37.8 ± 2.12 34 ± 2.24 30.6 ± 1.54 L4

Table 5: MCV levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (PG).

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
33.1 ± 0.63 32.5 ± 0.35 32.4 ± 0.28 32.4 ± 0.28 32.4 ± 0.28 32.3 ± 0.21 31.2 ± 0.77 30.4 ± 1.69 C
32.6 ± 0.42 32.2 ± 0.14 31.8 ± 1.27 31.7 ± 1.20 31.5 ± 1.06 31.3 ± 0.91 31.2 ± 0.77 29.6 ± 2.54 L1
32.4 ± 0.98 32.2 ± 0.14 31.8 ± 1.27 31.7 ± 1.20 31.5 ± 1.06 31.3 ± 0.91 31.2 ± 0.77 30.1 ± 1.48 L2
32.7 ± 0.49 32.4 ± 0.28 32.8 ± 0.56 31.7 ± 1.20 31.6 ± 1.13 31.6 ± 1.13 31.4 ± 0.98 30.3 ± 1.62 L3
34.6 ± 0.98 33.2 ± 0.56 32.7 ± 0.49 32.3 ± 0.21 31.8 ± 1.27 31.4 ± 0.98 31.5 ± 1.06 30.4 ± 1.69 L4

Table 6: MCHC levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (g/dl).

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
33.1 ± 0.63 32.5 ± 0.35 32.4 ± 0.28 32.4 ± 0.28 32.4 ± 0.28 32.3 ± 0.21 31.2 ± 0.77 30.4 ± 1.69 C
32.6 ± 0.42 32.2 ± 0.14 31.8 ± 1.27 31.7 ± 1.20 31.5 ± 1.06 31.3 ± 0.91 31.2 ± 0.77 29.6 ± 2.54 L1
32.4 ± 0.98 32.2 ± 0.14 31.8 ± 1.27 31.7 ± 1.20 31.5 ± 1.06 31.3 ± 0.91 31.2 ± 0.77 30.1 ± 1.48 L2
32.7 ± 0.49 32.4 ± 0.28 32.8 ± 0.56 31.7 ± 1.20 31.6 ± 1.13 31.6 ± 1.13 31.4 ± 0.98 30.3 ± 1.62 L3
34.6 ± 0.98 33.2 ± 0.56 32.7 ± 0.49 32.3 ± 0.21 31.8 ± 1.27 31.4 ± 0.98 31.5 ± 1.06 30.4 ± 1.69 L4

Table 7: The number of white blood cells in experimental and control groups

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
26.000 ± 1.40 28.722 ± 1.92 27.730 ± 2.63 24.743±2.30 24.610±2.39 24.022±2.81 22.386±1.68 22.360 ± 1.62 C
34.808 ± 2.61 33.668 ± 1.65 30.670 ± 0.94 25.990 ± 1.40 19.433 ± 0.40 16.237 ± 0.16 14.820 ± 0.83 13.935 ± 1.46 L1
28.700 ± 2.87 25.786 ± 1.25 23.757 ± 1.59 21.253 ± 0.53 19.799 ± 0.14 12.936 ± 0.75 11.975 ± 0.02 11.906 ± 0.07 L2
25.000 ± 0.70 22.859 ± 2.01 21.782 ± 0.15 21.606 ± 0.28 19.039 ± 0.68 16.846 ± 0.59 15.848 ± 0.11 13.936 ± 1.46 L3
25.750 ± 1.23 24.750 ± 2.25 22.642 ± 1.86 18.917 ± 0.77 18.637 ± 0.96 15.836 ± 0.12 11.875 ± 0.09 11.768 ± 0.16 L4

Table 8: Percentages blood heterophils in experimental and control groups (%).

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
4.5 ± 0.35 4.5 ± 0.35 4.7 ± 0.49 6.3 ± 0.21 8.5 ± 0.35 11.3 ± 0.49 14.3 ± 0.21 16.1± 0.07 C
2.2 ± 0.14 4.0 ± 0.0 5.1 ± 0. 63 5.6 ± 0.28 6.3 ± 0.21 8.7 ± 0.49 14.1 ± 0.07 16.3±0.21 L1
1.6 ±0.28 1.6 ± 0.28 2.0 ± 0.0 3.7 ± 0.21 3.7 ± 0.21 5.5 ± 0.35 7.6 ± 0.28 10.8±0.84 L2
2.1 ± 0.12 2.0 ± 0.0 2.2 ± 0.14 4.1 ± 0.07 5.7 ± 0.21 7.5 ± 0.35 9.0 ± 0.70 11.2±0.56 L3
1.3 ± 0.49 3.7 ± 0.21 4.8 ± 0.52 5.7 ± 0.21 7.1 ±0.63 9.7 ± 0.21 11.7 ± 0.64 15.2±0.72 L4

Table 9: Percentages blood lymphocytes in experimental and control groups (%).

56 46 42 35 28 21 14 7 Day Group
4.2 ± 0.69 3.7 ± 0.21 3.7 ± 0.21 3.6 ± 0.28 3.7 ± 0.21 3.5 ± 0.35 3.6 ± 0.28 3.1 ± 0.63 C
4.7 ± 0.65 4.3 ± 0.68 4.3 ± 0.68 4.3 ± 0.68 4.5 ± 0.67 4.4 ± 0.67 3.6 ± 0.28 3.2 ± 0.56 L1
4.3 ± 0.68 4.3 ± 0.68 4.3 ± 0.68 4.2 ± 0.69 4.1 ± 0.70 3.8 ± 0.14 3.9 ± 0.07 3.2 ± 0.56 L2
5.1 ± 0.63 4.7 ± 0.65 4.6 ± 0.66 4.1 ± 0.70 4.1 ± 0.70 4.2 ± 0.69 3.7 ± 0.21 3.2 ± 0.56 L3
5.1 ± 0.63 4.8 ± 0.65 4.8 ± 0.65 4.1 ± 0.70 4.1 ± 0.70 3.4 ± 0.42 3.3 ± 0.49 3.1 ± 0.63 L4

Table 10: Total plasma protein levels in test and control groups (g/dl).

biotechnology-biomaterials-broiler-chickens

Figure 1: Hemoglobin levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups(g/dl).

biotechnology-biomaterials-Hematocrit-levels

Figure 2: Hematocrit levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (%).

biotechnology-biomaterials-red-blood-cells

Figure 3: The number of red blood cells in experimental and control groups

biotechnology-biomaterials-control-groups

Figure 4: MCV levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (FL).

biotechnology-biomaterials-MCV-levels

Figure 5: MCV levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (PG).

biotechnology-biomaterials-experimental-control-groups

Figure 6: MCHC levels in broiler chickens experimental and control groups (g/dl).

biotechnology-biomaterials-white-blood-cells

Figure 7: The number of white blood cells in experimental and control groups.

biotechnology-biomaterials-Percentages-heterophils

Figure 8: Percentages heterophils blood in test and control groups (%).

biotechnology-biomaterials-lymphocytes

Figure 9: Percentages blood lymphocytes in experimental and control groups (%).

biotechnology-biomaterials-Total-plasma

Figure 10: Total plasma protein levels in test and control groups (g/dl).

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12459
  • [From(publication date):
    July-2012 - Dec 12, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8619
  • PDF downloads : 3840
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version