The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land") a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages grouped into roughly 250 language groups. Australia is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the world's 12th-largest economy.
Australia is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans ,it is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres. Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith, is located in Western Australia. Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the center.
Australia is a wealthy country; it generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, and the wine industry contributes $5.5 billion per year to the nation's economy. The Research and Development (R&D) Programme supports renewable energy technologies that will increase the commercial deployment of renewable energy technology in Australia.
In Physics, Medicine, Economics , Physiology ,Chemistry etc including all fields this island nation produced 15 Nobel laureates so far, in which one is for Neuorlogy. ANZAN (Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists) aims to ensure that high standards of clinical neurology are practised in Australia and New Zealand by playing an active role in training, continuing education and encouragement of teaching and research. The Australasian Academy of Functional Neurology (AAFN) is a multi-disciplinary, membership-based, professional organisation. It is comprised of medical and varied allied health practitioners. The purpose of the AAFN is to represent and promote the burgeoning field of functional neurology/neuroscience in the Australasia region and assist the clinical advancement of evidence-based functional neuroscience within health care practices. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd Publishes most of the Neurology journals.